To study whether there is a relationship of vitamin D with PAD, Melamed and colleagues analyzed data from a national survey measuring vitamin D levels in 4,839 U.S. adults. Researchers in that survey had also documented ankle-brachial index, a PAD screening tool that measures blood flow to the legs.
"We also measured other risk factors for peripheral arterial disease such as cholesterol levels, diabetes, blood pressure and inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein," Melamed said.
The researchers found that higher levels of vitamin D correlated with a lower prevalence of PAD. In the participants with the highest vitamin D levels -- more than 29.2 nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL) -- only 3.7 percent had PAD. Among those with the lowest levels -- less than 17.8 ng/mL -- 8.1 percent had PAD.
"After adjusting for age, sex, race and co-existing health problems, we found adults in the lowest vitamin D group had a 64 percent higher prevalence of PAD compared to those with the highest vitamin D levels," Melamed said. "For each 10 ng/mL lower vitamin D level, there was a 29 percent higher risk of peripheral arterial disease."
This does not mean that vitamin D is having a protective effect itself, although this is one hypothesis. It is also possible that higher vitamin D levels may be a marker of other health practices, e.g., eating a healthier diet or engaging in more physical activity - which could be related to sun exposure, though not necessarily, researchers said.
The findings need to be addressed in a large randomized clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation, Melamed said. This could be done with natural sources from food.
"Other vitamins have been thought to help prevent ca
|SOURCE American Heart Association|
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