Navigation Links
Liver cancer vaccine effective in mice
Date:6/3/2014

AUGUSTA, Ga. Tweaking a protein expressed by most liver cancer cells has enabled scientists to make a vaccine that is exceedingly effective at preventing the disease in mice.

Alpha-Fetoprotein, or AFP normally expressed during development and by liver cancer cells as well has escaped attack in previous vaccine iterations because the body recognizes it as "self," said Dr. Yukai He, immunologist at the Medical College of Georgia and Georgia Regents University Cancer Center.

Liver cancer is among the fastest-growing and deadliest cancers in the United States with a 17 percent three-year survival rate. Vaccines help direct the immune system to attack invaders by showing it a representative substance, called an antigen, that the body will recognize as foreign, in this case, AFP for liver cancer.

In a process called antigen engineering, He tweaked AFP just enough to get the immune system to recognize it but still keep the AFP expressed by liver cancer cells in the bull's eye, he and his colleagues report in the journal Hepatology.

AFP is expressed by about 80 percent of most common liver cancer cells but not typically by healthy adults. For cancer to flourish, cells must revert to an immature state, called dedifferentiation, which is why liver cancer cells express a protein during development and why the immune system can recognize AFP as "self."

He's modified AFP was delivered in a vehicle with a proven record for getting into cells. The lentivector is the backbone of the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, minus most of its genes. It is particularly good at targeting dendritic cells, whose job is to show the immune system antigens then activate T cells to attack.

In a proven model where mice are exposed to chemicals known to induce liver cancer, the vaccine blocked cancer about 90 percent of the time. Mice receiving the vaccine had more T cells generally and more that targeted AFP, which could keep an eye out for re-emerging liver cancer.

Recurring tumor cells is an unfortunately realistic scenario for liver cancer patients, who have a 70 percent recurrence rate in five years, He said. Patients typically have surgery to remove the diseased portion of the liver, but there are currently no effective adjuvant therapies, such as chemotherapy, to reduce recurrence, He said.

Ideally, some version of his vaccine will one day provide that key missing piece and dramatically improve patient survival, He said. Similarly, the approach might also work to prevent the disease in high-risk populations. He has not yet looked at whether the vaccine could be a first-line treatment.

He recently received a $1.6 million grant from the National Cancer Institute that will continue to move the mouse studies toward human application. "Now that we know it works in mice, we have to make sure it works in people," He said, noting that many promising cancer vaccines have not worked well in humans.

The new studies include taking the blood of healthy individuals and removing monocytes, which are plentiful white blood cells that can become dendritic cells. They'll coax dendritic cells to develop, give them the vaccine, then give the armed dendritic cells back to mice to see if they will produce AFP-focused T cells.

Next steps also include developing a virus-like particle, which retains the efficiency of lentivector without the safety concerns of the HIV-derived delivery system and can be easily reproduced in a factory. These protein-based delivery systems are utilized by a number of vaccines already used in humans. He and his team also are working on a receptor ligand that would cause AFP to draw even more attention from dendritic cells.

He is betting that a safer delivery vehicle and ligand packaged with his antigen in a so-called "tripartite" vaccine will be a powerful package.

Carcinogen- and hepatitis B-induced liver cancer models are being used for the studies.

While hepatitis vaccines have reduced liver cancer rates in most other countries, unprecedented rates of obesity and diabetes are accelerating rates in this country, He said. Much like chronic hepatitis infections and carcinogens, diabetes and obesity both produce chronic inflammation, a major risk for liver cancer. Both conditions also dramatically increase the workload of the large organ, which has a big role in metabolism, by generating more fat and glucose that needs handling.


'/>"/>

Contact: Toni Baker
tbaker@gru.edu
706-721-4421
Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Normalizing tumor blood vessels improves delivery of only the smallest nanomedicines
2. CT Scans Deliver More Radiation to Obese People: Study
3. Modest alcohol consumption lowers risk and severity of liver disease
4. Childhood Obesity May Raise Odds of Adult Liver Cancer
5. UNC study shows potential to revive abandoned cancer drug by nanoparticle drug delivery
6. Combination of 2 drugs reverses liver tumors
7. New guidelines deliver concise messages for implementing cardiovascular prevention
8. Liver fat gets a wake-up call that maintains blood sugar levels
9. Hepatitis C Causing Liver Damage in Greater Numbers: Study
10. Body Building, Diet Supplements Linked to Liver Damage: Study
11. U.S. Liver Transplants Declining
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Liver cancer vaccine effective in mice
(Date:7/21/2017)... ... July 21, 2017 , ... Hospital M&A activity slowed in the second quarter ... hospital acquisitions rose to 23 in the second quarter, up 15% from the 20 ... 20 announced deals in the year-ago second quarter. Only four of the transactions disclosed ...
(Date:7/21/2017)... ... July 21, 2017 , ... The Margarian Law Firm has ... contents of its ginger ale for allegedly containing no ginger. Dr. Pepper produces the ... Group, Inc., plaintiff Gegham Margaryan alleges Canada Dry Ginger Ale claims on its bottle ...
(Date:7/21/2017)... ... July 21, 2017 , ... ... $5,000 grant from the C. R. Bard Foundation, Inc. to support ... Hills , a service available through the nonprofit home care agency. Using evidence-based ...
(Date:7/21/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... July 21, 2017 , ... “Kids aren't ... how to tie their shoes,” says Suzanne Tucker, Founder of St. Louis-based positive education ... Toolkit, which launches on Kickstarter on Monday, July 21st. , The kit uses ...
(Date:7/21/2017)... Fresno, CA (PRWEB) , ... July 21, 2017 , ... ... Ms. “Tu” Tuantu Doan Vu, PA-C. Beginning July 17, 2017, Ms. Vu will join ... than 27 years of experience in dermatology, skin cancer , and more. She ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:7/11/2017)... Md. , July 11, 2017  The global ... estimated revenues of approximately $394.1 million in 2016.  Although ... trend of solid growth, in particular as a result ... clinical practice, and the recent introduction of a significant ... need for less-invasive testing of tumor biomarkers to guide ...
(Date:7/11/2017)... -- Dr. Echenberg, founder of Echenberg Institute, is announcing a new safe and ... painful intercourse and other painful pelvic pain conditions such as pelvic floor ... ... ... -based start-up company, VuVatech LLC, fills a void in the women,s ...
(Date:7/10/2017)... 10, 2017  US medical equipment and supply demand ... to Medical Equipment & Supplies: United States ... Reports. Continued increases in demand for medical services – ... population and supported by gains in disposable personal income ... New product introductions will also drive sales as providers ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: