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Lifestyle can alter gene activity, lead to insulin resistance
Date:6/18/2008

as not. The control group consisted of five male and five female twin pairs who were concordant for weight. Some of the concordant pairs were normal-weight while some pairs were overweight.

The researchers measured whole body insulin sensitivity, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. They also obtained a needle biopsy of abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue, although they were unable to obtain this measurement for one of the discordant pairs.

Among the discordant pairs, the study found the obese twin had significantly lower:

  • Insulin sensitivity, indicating the body has a harder time using glucose to produce energy.

  • Fitness levels, as measured by maximum oxygen uptake and maximum work capacity.

  • Transcription levels of genes that help cells convert food to energy (the genes of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation). Transcription is a multi-step process in which information in the genes is used to manufacture proteins. Proteins, in turn, direct cell activity. This suggests that the impaired expression of the genes may make it more difficult to lose excess weight, or may make additional weight gain more likely.

Heredity may still play role

"These data suggest that physical inactivity may have contributed to the defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation described in type 2 diabetic patients and prediabetic subjects," the authors wrote. The authors also noted that, although environment plays a role in how these genes work, there still may be a hereditary component.

"Although we found that the reduced transcript levels of genes encoding mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in obesity is influenced by environmental and acquired factors, it does not exclude the possibility that genetic factors contribute to regulation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism," lead author Linda Mustelin noted.

The next step is to do a clinical study to see if exercise
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Contact: Christine Guilfoy
cguilfoy@the-aps.org
301-634-7253
American Physiological Society
Source:Eurekalert

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