Navigation Links
Kids in Poor Neighborhoods Fall Behind in School

Study finds they lose about 4 points on IQ tests compared to better-off peers

FRIDAY, Dec. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Black children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods fall behind the equivalent of one year or more of schooling simply because of where they live.

"[The study] does speak to the power of external resources," said Richard Gilman, coordinator of psychology and special education in the division of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at Cincinnati Children's Hospital in Ohio. "It focuses on race as a characteristic, but it's not necessarily race. It's what's going on in families and external to families. . . the characteristics [of neighborhoods they identify] are going to be disproportional to African-American families because of the state of affairs for those families. They are the type of families living primarily in the inner cities."

Gilman was not involved with the study, which is published in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

A person's cognitive ability, which is mainly shaped early in life, can predict how well he or she will do later in life in terms of education, employment, whether or not they enter the criminal justice system and health.

But experts differ in whether genetics or environment are the primary shapers. And the role of the neighborhood has not been extensively studied.

For this study, sociologists at Harvard University analyzed Chicago census tract data from 1990 and 2000 and identified six neighborhood characteristics which, together, formed "concentrated disadvantage" and were linked to the cognitive abilities of children.

The six characteristics were: welfare receipt, poverty, unemployment, female-headed households, racial composition and density of children.

More than 2,000 urban Chicago children aged 6 to 12 were assessed for verbal ability and other characteristics.

The children, with their caretakers, were followed wherever they moved in the United States for seven years.

The researchers took into account the impact of moving into and out of areas of disadvantage. About 17 percent of black children not living in disadvantage moved to a disadvantaged neighborhood between 1995 and 2002, while 42 percent of black children in disadvantaged neighborhoods in 1995 moved to a non-disadvantaged neighborhood during those years.

Children who lived in a severely disadvantaged neighborhood halfway through the follow-up period were almost all black, and they fell behind their otherwise identical peers by about four points on an IQ test. This translates into about one year of schooling.

Almost one-third of black children lived at some point in "concentrated disadvantaged" neighborhoods compared to almost no white or Latino children.

The findings tilt the nature-versus-nurture debate toward the latter factor.

"The study has implications for interventions, because they've identified the risk factors, it appears, that contribute to negative outcomes," Gilman said. "We don't have a lot of intervention research. It would seem that if you began to design intervention studies that target these specific risk factors, hopefully, you will begin to see an increase in verbal scores, particularly among African-Americans."

More information

Visit the Nemours Foundation for more on kids' health.

SOURCES: Richard Gilman, Ph.D., coordinator, psychology and special education, division of developmental and behavioral pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Ohio; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Copyright©2007 ScoutNews,LLC.
All rights reserved  

Related medicine news :

1. Drinking Often Spurs Move to Poorer Neighborhoods
2. Dysfunctional families and bad neighborhoods may worsen asthma in children and adolescents
3. High and mighty: first common height gene identified by researchers behind obesity gene finding
4. Lung Cancer Alliance Stands Behind CT Screening for Lung Cancer
5. The science behind the food we eat and the earth on which it grows
6. Plastic Surgery 2007: Where Truth Behind Emerging Cosmetic Treatments Meets Amazing Reconstructive Advances
7. Second pathway behind HIV-associated immune system dysfunction identified
8. Nationally Recognized Corporations and Retailers Rally Behind
9. P&G Reports EPS of $0.92, Up 16% Behind 8% Sales Growth
10. Researchers chart the genetic mechanisms behind the genesis of fat cells
11. NCPA President Steve Girouxs Testimony at FDA Behind the Counter Hearing
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
Kids in Poor Neighborhoods Fall Behind in School
(Date:11/26/2015)... Toronto, ON and Cambridge, ON (PRWEB) , ... ... ... announced today the availability of a real-time eReferral system for diagnostic imaging in ... CTs, ultrasounds, X-rays, mammography, BMD and Nuclear Medicine tests directly from their electronic ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... ... November 26, 2015 , ... The Catalent Applied Drug Delivery ... to integrate dose form selection in early phase drug development. The first of ... and bringing together the UK’s emerging life sciences companies, corporate partners, and investors, ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... ... November 26, 2015 , ... PRMA Plastic Surgery is updating ... our surgeons performed their 6,000th free flap breast reconstruction surgery! , “What an accomplishment ... day excited to rebuild lives and it’s an honor to have served all of ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... ... 26, 2015 , ... Pixel Film Studios brings Final Cut ... Vintage. This newly styled ProTrailer pack comes with 30 all-new vintage-inspired designs, with ... users limitless opportunities to stylize and create designs quickly and easily, all within ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... ... ... Indosoft Inc., developer and distributor of the world-class Asterisk based contact center ... reliability. , The new Q-Suite 6 platform is based on the latest Java Enterprise ... a specific piece of software for many key components of the suite. Much of ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/27/2015)... 2015 --> ... online. The potential to save costs, improve treatment quality ... from fully exploited as yet. Here, particular emphasis is ... via mobile tablet or directly at the patients, bedside. ... ) -->      (Photo: ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... Research and Markets ( ) has announced the ... report to their offering. ... author the present scenario and growth prospects of the ... market size, the report considers revenue generated from the ... copper IUDs. The report forecasts the global intrauterine devices ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... November 26, 2015 Un nuevo ... Bremachlorin para el cáncer avanzado.   --> ... terapia fotodinámica de Bremachlorin para el cáncer avanzado. ... la inmunoterapia con la terapia fotodinámica de Bremachlorin para ... Research . --> Clinical Cancer Research . ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: