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Joslin scientists identify process that affects fat distribution and metabolic syndrome
Date:7/2/2014

BOSTON July 1, 2014 Building upon their earlier research on the biology of fat metabolism, Joslin scientists discovered that microRNAs small RNA molecules that play important roles in regulation in many types of tissue play a major role in the distribution and determination of fat cells and whole body metabolism. Also, the study is the first to reveal that microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the development of lipodystrophy (abnormal fat accumulation) which affects many people with HIV receiving anti-retroviral therapy. The findings appear in the August issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Previous Joslin studies have demonstrated that fat cells (adipocytes) have functions far beyond fat storage: they secrete substances that actively influence metabolism and are also a site of systemic inflammation leading to insulin resistance. The body has two types of fat the more common white adipose fat (WAT), which stores fat; and brown adipose fat (BAT), which burns fat to produce heat. BAT plays a beneficial role in regulating body weight and metabolism, which has generated considerable interest among scientists and pharmaceutical companies looking for treatments for obesity. Excess WAT, on the other hand, especially in the intra-abdominal area, is associated with metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.

In the current study, Joslin scientists were interested in learning more about miRNAs and their role in the creation of fat cells and the function of brown and white fat. Earlier Joslin research revealed that with aging, miRNA processing in fat tissue decreases due to a decrease in Dicer, a critical enzyme that converts pre-miRNAs to mature miRNAs. Using a mouse model in which expression of Dicer was specifically knocked out in fat tissue, the researchers found that mice that lacked Dicer in fat developed abnormal fat distribution resembling HIV-related lipodystrophy (which is associated with antiviral treatment). In mice, t
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Contact: Jeffrey Bright
jeff.bright@joslin.harvard.edu
Joslin Diabetes Center
Source:Eurekalert  

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