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Johns Hopkins researchers find promising therapeutic target for hard-to-treat brain tumor
Date:8/27/2013

ovaries.

CT genes are activated, however, in various cancers. While they are seen as "foreign" by the body's immune system, they are often locked behind the sophisticated defense system that cancers use to evade attack by immune cells. Finding a way to get the immune system to see these protein antigens, however, could allow for the body to recognize the invasion and go after the cancer cells. Various approaches are being used to do that, including vaccines and a system involving removing T-cells from the body and reprogramming them before returning them and setting them loose on the cancer cells.

The Johns Hopkins researchers took tissue from 18 different meningioma samples, removed the genetic material and protein and checked at what levels the 37 different genes were turned on. The gene that is the blueprint for the NY-ESO-1 protein was turned on more frequently than any other, in five of the 18 patient samples.

Then they analyzed NY-ESO-1 expression in a larger group of 110 meningioma tissue samples. They found NY-ESO-1 in 108 of them. The more expression in the sample, they also determined, the higher the tumor grade. The higher levels of NY-ESO-1 expressed also correlated with significantly lower disease-free and overall survival rates in the patients they came from.

The NCI trial originally began in melanoma patients. NY-ESO-1 is expressed in roughly one-third of melanomas as well as approximately one-third of breast, prostate, lung, ovarian, thyroid and bladder cancers, as well as sarcomas. Riggins and his team did not find the protein in glioblastoma, the deadliest form of brain cancer.

He calls the fact that the NCI trial could now include meningioma patients a "stroke of luck."

"If that therapy did not exist, there would be a lot of work that would have to be done to convince people to pursue this," Riggins says. "Our goal is to get something that works to the patients. This puts us well on our way."
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Contact: Stephanie Desmon
sdesmon1@jhmi.edu
410-955-8665
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Source:Eurekalert

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