Navigation Links
JCI table of contents: Jan. 25, 2010
Date:1/25/2010

VACCINE DESIGN: Three is better than two when boosting vaccine effectiveness

To boost vaccine effectiveness molecules known as adjuvants are often included in the vaccine formulation. Adjuvants are most commonly used to increase the magnitude of vaccine-induced immune responses, specifically T cell immune responses. However, the quality of a T cell response can be more important than its quantity, and a team of researchers, at the National Institutes of Health, has now identified a way to increase the quality but not the quantity of a vaccine-induced T cell response in mice.

TLRs are a family of microorganism-sensing proteins that represent potential new vaccine adjuvants, as stimulating certain pairs of TLRs has a synergistic effect on the magnitude of immune responses in preclinical models. The team, led by Jay Berzofsky, found that when mice were immunized with an HIV peptide together with three molecules that bound different TLRs they mounted a more effective protective T cell response than did mice immunized with the HIV peptide together with any two of the ligands. Further analysis determined that the increased protection correlated with T cell responses of enhanced quality, rather than enhanced quantity. The authors therefore suggest that select TLR ligand combinations could be used to separately manipulate the quality and quantity of vaccine-induced T cell responses.

TITLE: Using 3 TLR ligands as a combination adjuvant induces qualitative changes in T cell responses needed for antiviral protection in mice

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Jay A. Berzofsky
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Phone: (301) 486-6874; Fax: (301) 480-0681; E-mail: berzofsk@helix.nih.gov.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/39293?key=76e6b3aa09052df83883


ONCOLOGY: Genetic variability in a tumor as an indicator of patient risk

Every cell within a tumor is not genetically identical and this genetic heterogeneity is thought to underlie tumor progression and resistance to therapeutics. A team of researchers, at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, has now developed methods to quantitatively describe intratumor genetic heterogeneity in primary human tumors.

The team, led by Kornelia Polyak and Franziska Michor, used these techniques to assess heterogeneity in several different types of human breast cancer. A high degree of genetic heterogeneity was detected both within and between distinct tumor cell populations. Further, in some tumors the degree of genetic heterogeneity was markedly different between the in situ and invasive cancer cell populations. As genetic diversity was associated with clinical variables, the authors suggest that it might provide a clinically useful biomarker for predicting prognosis and response to treatment. The idea that intratumor genetic heterogeneity might be a useful biomarker of a patient's risk of tumor progression and therapeutic resistance is further discussed by Lauren Merlo and Carlo Maley, at The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, in an accompanying commentary.

TITLE: Cellular and genetic diversity in the progression of in situ human breast carcinomas to an invasive phenotype

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Kornelia Polyak
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Phone: (617) 632-2106; Fax: (617) 582-8490; E-mail: Kornelia_Polyak@dfci.harvard.edu.

Franziska Michor
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
Phone: (646) 888-2802; Fax: (646) 422-0717; E-mail: michorf@mskcc.org.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/40724?key=d04af6bb12268301ccae

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY
TITLE: The role of genetic diversity in cancer

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Carlo C. Maley
The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Phone: (215) 495-6838; Fax: (215) 495-6829; E-mail: cmaley@alum.mit.edu.

View the PDF of this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/42088?key=92ef686c26a5643a1911


VASCULAR BIOLOGY: The protein TGF-beta protects against blood vessel disease

Abdominal aortic aneurysm affects approximately 5% of elderly men and causes a substantial number of deaths. It is also associated with some genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome. It is caused by degeneration of the wall of the main blood vessel leaving the heart (the aorta), which causes localized dilation; rupture of the aneurysm is what cuases death. Ziad Mallat and colleagues, at INSERM U970, France, have now identified a protective role for the molecule TGF-beta in a mouse model of abdominal aortic aneurysm in which disease is triggered by infusing the protein Ang II. Specifically, it was found that neutralizing TGF-beta activity worsened Ang IIinduced abdominal aortic aneurysm progression in mice. These data are in contrast to reports that TGF-beta promotes aortic aneurysm progression, and in an accompanying commentary, Harry Dietz, at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, discusses the complex roles of TGF-beta in different forms of aneurysm.

TITLE: TGF-beta activity protects against inflammatory aortic aneurysm progression and complications in angiotensin IIinfused mice

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Ziad Mallat
INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Paris, France.
Phone: 331-5398-8050; Fax: 331-5398-7952; E-mail: ziad.mallat@inserm.fr.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/38136?key=11418c50dbefe343cc12

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY
TITLE: TGF-beta in the pathogenesis and prevention of disease: a matter of aneurysmic proportions

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Harry C. Dietz
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Phone: (410) 614-0701; Fax: (410) 614-2256; E-mail: hdietz@jhmi.edu.

View the PDF of this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/42014?key=92ef686c26a9363a1911


'/>"/>

Contact: Karen Honey
press_releases@the-jci.org
215-573-1850
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Ranbaxy Receives Tentative Approval to Manufacture and Market Galantamine Tablets on an Exclusive Basis
2. Schering-Plough/Merck Pharmaceuticals Announce FDA Filing Acceptance of New Drug Application for Loratadine/Montelukast Tablet
3. JCI table of contents: Sept. 4, 2007
4. FDA Seeks to Regulate Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Products Such as Vegetable Juice Could Be Restricted for Medical Use
5. Actavis Launches Carvedilol Tablets in the U.S.
6. Mylan Announces Final FDA Approval for Carvedilol Tablets
7. Ranbaxy Gains Approval to Manufacture and Market Carvedilol Tablets in the U.S. Market
8. Actavis Launches Amlodipine Tablets in the U.S.
9. Implantable device designed to detect, stop seizures under study at MCG
10. Stevens Health, Technology and Society roundtable: Sept. 19
11. Fruity vegetables and fish reduce asthma and allergies
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/28/2016)... , ... April 28, 2016 , ... La Sirena Foods ... one in Central America and is looking to grow their market share in the ... an exceptional brand as La Sirena Foods and indirectly with Otis ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... ... April 28, 2016 , ... ... today the open availability of a new CDISC standard, Clinical Trial Registry ... clinical trials. This innovative standard will make it possible to build applications ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... West Palm Beach, FL (PRWEB) , ... April 28, 2016 , ... ... time for the spring season. Smart pots are frequently used by professional organic farmers ... time for growers to order their supply of fabric pots. Our goal is to ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... ... April 28, 2016 , ... ... enterprise Data Center Infrastructure Management solutions, announces today the availability of its ... in the area of capacity management and optimization, providing new analytical capabilities ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... ... April 28, 2016 , ... USA Medical Card reminds us that May is National Stroke Awareness ... the fourth leading cause of death in the United States; someone has one every 40 ... them in individuals under 65 years old. A stroke is when blood flow to ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:4/28/2016)... Research and Markets has announced ... Market 2016-2020" report to their offering. ... The global plastic surgery products market is expected to ... 2016-2020. , ,The growing adoption of laser in aesthetics ... the market. Lasers are used to treat a broad ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... YORK , April 28, 2016 ... online consumer insights on healthcare, announced today that it ... their report Cool Vendor in Life Sciences, 2016, ... April 15, 2016.  The report focuses on life-science- oriented ... gain insight from patients and doctors, confirm medication ingestion, ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... N.J. , April 28, 2016   Acsis ... today announced that leading IT market research and advisory ... " in the IDC MarketScape: Worldwide Pharmaceutical Track and ... 2016).  The report provides an assessment of the capabilities ... track and trace software market. Logo - ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: