Navigation Links
JCI table of contents: Jan. 25, 2010
Date:1/25/2010

VACCINE DESIGN: Three is better than two when boosting vaccine effectiveness

To boost vaccine effectiveness molecules known as adjuvants are often included in the vaccine formulation. Adjuvants are most commonly used to increase the magnitude of vaccine-induced immune responses, specifically T cell immune responses. However, the quality of a T cell response can be more important than its quantity, and a team of researchers, at the National Institutes of Health, has now identified a way to increase the quality but not the quantity of a vaccine-induced T cell response in mice.

TLRs are a family of microorganism-sensing proteins that represent potential new vaccine adjuvants, as stimulating certain pairs of TLRs has a synergistic effect on the magnitude of immune responses in preclinical models. The team, led by Jay Berzofsky, found that when mice were immunized with an HIV peptide together with three molecules that bound different TLRs they mounted a more effective protective T cell response than did mice immunized with the HIV peptide together with any two of the ligands. Further analysis determined that the increased protection correlated with T cell responses of enhanced quality, rather than enhanced quantity. The authors therefore suggest that select TLR ligand combinations could be used to separately manipulate the quality and quantity of vaccine-induced T cell responses.

TITLE: Using 3 TLR ligands as a combination adjuvant induces qualitative changes in T cell responses needed for antiviral protection in mice

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Jay A. Berzofsky
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Phone: (301) 486-6874; Fax: (301) 480-0681; E-mail: berzofsk@helix.nih.gov.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/39293?key=76e6b3aa09052df83883


ONCOLOGY: Genetic variability in a tumor as an indicator of patient risk

Every cell within a tumor is not genetically identical and this genetic heterogeneity is thought to underlie tumor progression and resistance to therapeutics. A team of researchers, at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, has now developed methods to quantitatively describe intratumor genetic heterogeneity in primary human tumors.

The team, led by Kornelia Polyak and Franziska Michor, used these techniques to assess heterogeneity in several different types of human breast cancer. A high degree of genetic heterogeneity was detected both within and between distinct tumor cell populations. Further, in some tumors the degree of genetic heterogeneity was markedly different between the in situ and invasive cancer cell populations. As genetic diversity was associated with clinical variables, the authors suggest that it might provide a clinically useful biomarker for predicting prognosis and response to treatment. The idea that intratumor genetic heterogeneity might be a useful biomarker of a patient's risk of tumor progression and therapeutic resistance is further discussed by Lauren Merlo and Carlo Maley, at The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, in an accompanying commentary.

TITLE: Cellular and genetic diversity in the progression of in situ human breast carcinomas to an invasive phenotype

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Kornelia Polyak
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Phone: (617) 632-2106; Fax: (617) 582-8490; E-mail: Kornelia_Polyak@dfci.harvard.edu.

Franziska Michor
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
Phone: (646) 888-2802; Fax: (646) 422-0717; E-mail: michorf@mskcc.org.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/40724?key=d04af6bb12268301ccae

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY
TITLE: The role of genetic diversity in cancer

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Carlo C. Maley
The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Phone: (215) 495-6838; Fax: (215) 495-6829; E-mail: cmaley@alum.mit.edu.

View the PDF of this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/42088?key=92ef686c26a5643a1911


VASCULAR BIOLOGY: The protein TGF-beta protects against blood vessel disease

Abdominal aortic aneurysm affects approximately 5% of elderly men and causes a substantial number of deaths. It is also associated with some genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome. It is caused by degeneration of the wall of the main blood vessel leaving the heart (the aorta), which causes localized dilation; rupture of the aneurysm is what cuases death. Ziad Mallat and colleagues, at INSERM U970, France, have now identified a protective role for the molecule TGF-beta in a mouse model of abdominal aortic aneurysm in which disease is triggered by infusing the protein Ang II. Specifically, it was found that neutralizing TGF-beta activity worsened Ang IIinduced abdominal aortic aneurysm progression in mice. These data are in contrast to reports that TGF-beta promotes aortic aneurysm progression, and in an accompanying commentary, Harry Dietz, at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, discusses the complex roles of TGF-beta in different forms of aneurysm.

TITLE: TGF-beta activity protects against inflammatory aortic aneurysm progression and complications in angiotensin IIinfused mice

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Ziad Mallat
INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Paris, France.
Phone: 331-5398-8050; Fax: 331-5398-7952; E-mail: ziad.mallat@inserm.fr.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/38136?key=11418c50dbefe343cc12

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY
TITLE: TGF-beta in the pathogenesis and prevention of disease: a matter of aneurysmic proportions

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Harry C. Dietz
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Phone: (410) 614-0701; Fax: (410) 614-2256; E-mail: hdietz@jhmi.edu.

View the PDF of this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/42014?key=92ef686c26a9363a1911


'/>"/>

Contact: Karen Honey
press_releases@the-jci.org
215-573-1850
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Ranbaxy Receives Tentative Approval to Manufacture and Market Galantamine Tablets on an Exclusive Basis
2. Schering-Plough/Merck Pharmaceuticals Announce FDA Filing Acceptance of New Drug Application for Loratadine/Montelukast Tablet
3. JCI table of contents: Sept. 4, 2007
4. FDA Seeks to Regulate Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Products Such as Vegetable Juice Could Be Restricted for Medical Use
5. Actavis Launches Carvedilol Tablets in the U.S.
6. Mylan Announces Final FDA Approval for Carvedilol Tablets
7. Ranbaxy Gains Approval to Manufacture and Market Carvedilol Tablets in the U.S. Market
8. Actavis Launches Amlodipine Tablets in the U.S.
9. Implantable device designed to detect, stop seizures under study at MCG
10. Stevens Health, Technology and Society roundtable: Sept. 19
11. Fruity vegetables and fish reduce asthma and allergies
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... 25, 2016 , ... Extremity Healthcare, Incorporated has implemented Phreesia ... check-in and post visit surveys. , “The Phreesia front desk system has already ... the check-in process for our clinic network, providing a world class administration system ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... A new update to ... motion capture, all by utilizing a common Wi-Fi network and a mobile device. When ... from any location with Wi-Fi, and use a mobile device to control the recording. ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... ... (KOHP), a $500,000 two-year pilot initiative to improve oral health-related awareness, education, prevention ... development for health care providers and promote best practices in 10 New Jersey ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... Today American University ... College of Medicine announced the AUA-FIU Global MD Program. Students in the ... from AUA and a Certificate of Completion from the FIU Herbert Wertheim College ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... ... Today Omega Institute, a leading destination for yoga education in New York’s Hudson ... the growing field of yoga therapy . Yoga therapy adapts the practice of ... injuries, illnesses, and temporary or chronic health conditions. , “Yoga therapy is a complementary ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/25/2016)... , May 25, 2016  Granger Diagnostics today announced ... for wounds and infections. This test ensures discovery ... select viruses. The test requires only a simple swab ... David G. Bostwick , MD, Chief ... facilitate wound healing: "We are excited to make ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... May 25, 2016 ReportsnReports.com ... research report that provides an overview on therapeutic ... at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, ... and molecule type, along with latest updates, and ... key players involved in the therapeutic development for ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... , May 24, 2016   ... demonstrating non-inferiority in overall bowel cleansing and superiority in ... c leansing of the ... ) , Norgine B.V. today announced new positive ... PEG and ascorbate bowel preparation) versus standard 2 litre PEG with ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: