Navigation Links
JCI online early table of contents: July 18, 2011

EDITOR'S PICK: IDOLizing low cholesterol

High levels of 'bad' cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) are a risk factor for developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) a disease of the major arterial blood vessels that is one of the major causes of heart attack and stroke. Although the use of statins and the adoption of lifestyle changes to reduce LDL cholesterol levels have decreased the incidence of and mortality from ASCVD, many individuals fail to reach target levels of LDL cholesterol. Researchers are therefore seeking new targets for LDL cholesterollowering therapeutics. Human genetic and mechanistic studies by a team of researchers, led by Pivi Pajukanta, at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, has now identified the protein MYLIP (also known as IDOL) as a potential new target in this context.

TITLE: The N342S MYLIP polymorphism is associated with high total cholesterol and increased LDL receptor degradation in humans

Pivi Pajukanta
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Phone: 310.267.2011; Fax: 310.794.5446; E-mail:

View this article at:

ONCOLOGY: Platinum-based drugs: double trouble for tumors

One of the reasons that tumors are able to grow rapidly is that they actively prevent immune cells from generating effective antitumor immune responses. Researchers are developing approaches to combat the mechanisms used by tumors to inhibit immune responses, but such approaches don't kill tumor cells directly. A team of researchers, led by Jolanda de Vries and Joost Lesterhuis, at Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Netherlands, has identified a mechanism by which some tumor cellkilling chemotherapeutic drugs currently in use (specifically, platinum-based drugs such as cisplatin) oppose the immune inhibitory mechanisms employed by tumors and thereby promote anticancer immune responses. The authors therefore suggest that their data provide rationale for the use of platinum-based anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs together with immune-modulating approaches to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

TITLE: Platinum-based drugs disrupt STAT6-mediated suppression of immune responses against cancer in humans and mice

I. Jolanda M. de Vries
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
Phone: 31.24.361.76.00; Fax: 31.24.354.03.39; E-mail:

W. Joost Lesterhuis
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
Phone: 31.24.361.03.53; Fax: 31.24.354.07.88; E-mail:

View this article at:

BONE BIOLOGY: The protein 3BP2 performs a balancing act in bone

Cherubism is a genetic disorder characterized by facial abnormalities that result from excessive bone destruction by activated bone cells known as osteoclasts. It is caused by mutations in the SH3BP2 gene that result in gain-of-function effects on the protein templated by the gene, the protein 3BP2. A team of researchers, led by Robert Rottapel, at the University of Toronto, Toronto, has now defined in mice the function of normal 3BP2 in bones, something about which little was previously known.

Rottapel and colleagues found that mice lacking 3BP2 developed osteoporosis as a result of reduced bone formation by bone cells known as osteoblasts. Further analysis revealed cell-intrinsic defects in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vivo and in vitro and determined the underlying molecular mechanism. These data indicate that 3BP2 has a key role in maintaining normal bone composition because it is essential for the normal function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

TITLE: 3BP2-deficient mice are osteoporotic with impaired osteoblast and osteoclast functions

Robert Rottapel
University Health Network, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Phone: 416.581.7852; Fax: 416.595.5719; E-mail:

View this article at:

PULMONARY: Home for progenitor cells modified in cystic fibrosis airways

Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer persistent bacterial infections of the lungs as a result of impaired secretion of mucus from glands in the airways known as submucosal glands. These glands are also home to slow-cycling progenitor cells, which are thought to be involved in repairing CF airways damaged by the persistent bacterial infections. A team of researchers, led by John Engelhardt, at The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, has now identified a role for the protein CGRP in regulating both mucus secretion from submucosal glands and their ability to house slow-cycling progenitor cells.

Mucus secretion stimulated by CGRP is impaired in individuals with CF. Therefore, submucosal glands respond by producing more and more CGRP. Consistent with this, Engelhardt and colleagues found that signaling downstream of CGRP was hyperactivated in CF human, pig, ferret, and mouse submucosal glands. In turn, the increased levels of CGRP promoted slow-cycling progenitor cell proliferation, and this altered the properties of the slow-cycling progenitor cell niche. These data have important implications for understanding the airway injury and repair in individuals with CF.

TITLE: CGRP induction in cystic fibrosis airways alters the submucosal gland progenitor cell niche in mice

John F. Engelhardt
The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Phone: 319.335.7744; Fax: 319.335.7198; E-mail:

View this article at:

NEPHROLOGY: New mechanistic insight into salt-induced high blood pressure

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a risk factor for numerous severe medical conditions, including heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure. Increased sensitivity to salt is a contributing factor to high blood pressure in some individuals, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Now, a team of researchers, led by Toshiro Fujita, at the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Japan, has determined that high-salt loading activates the protein Rac1 in the kidneys in rodent models of salt-sensitive high blood pressure and that this elevates blood pressure and leads to kidney damage. The chain of events downstream of Rac1 activation required the protein MR (mineralocorticoid receptor). These data provide new insight into the mechanism underlying salt-induced high blood pressure and kidney injury, and provide potential new therapeutic targets for treating these conditions.

TITLE: Rac1 GTPase in rodent kidneys is essential for salt-sensitive hypertension via a mineralocorticoid receptordependent pathway

Toshiro Fujita
University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Phone: 81.3.5800.9735; Fax: 81.3.5800.9736; E-mail:

View this article at:

VASCULAR DISEASE: New cause of blood vessel abnormalities identified

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a genetic disorder that results in the development of abnormalities in the blood vessels in organs such as the lungs, intestines, and brain. These abnormalities are known as arteriovenous malformations and they are associated with a high risk of potentially devastating bleeding episodes. New data, generated in mice, by Kristina I. Bostrm, Yucheng Yao, and colleagues, at the David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, suggests that deficiency of the protein MGP could be a previously unknown cause of AVMs. The authors therefore suggest that abnormalities in MGP function could contribute to the triggering of AVMs in individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

TITLE: Matrix Gla protein deficiency causes arteriovenous malformations in mice

Kristina I. Bostrm
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Phone: 310.794.4417; Fax: 310.206.8553; E-mail:

Yucheng Yao
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Phone: 310.794.4417; Fax: 310.206.8553; E-mail:

View this article at:

VASCULAR BIOLOGY: Understanding the formation of valves in veins

Most veins have one-way flaps called venous valves that ensure that blood flows in one direction. Dysfunction of venous valves leads to serious clinical conditions, including leg swelling and chronic ulceration. Despite this, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating the formation and maintenance of venous valves. However, a team of researchers, led by Taija Makinen, at the Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, United Kingdom, has now identified in mice several signaling pathways regulating venous valve formation. Of particular interest, the cells lining venous valves were found to closely resemble the cells lining valves in lymphatic vessels at the molecular level, suggesting plasticity in the ability of a valve-lining cell to take on a different identity.

TITLE: Genes regulating lymphangiogenesis control venous valve formation and maintenance in mice

Taija Makinen
Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, London, United Kingdom.
Phone:; Fax:; E-mail:

View this article at:

MUSCLE BIOLOGY: Endurance protein IL-15R-alpha

The protein IL-15R-alpha is perhaps best known as a component of the protein to which the immune-modulating factor IL-15 binds to mediates its effects. However, recent studies have indicated that this is not the only function of IL-15R-alpha, as some of the characteristics of mice lacking IL-15R-alpha differ from those lacking IL-15. In this context, a team of researchers, led by Tejvir S. Khurana, at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, has now defined a unique role for IL-15R-alpha in mouse muscle that does not involve IL-15. Specifically, the team found that IL-15R-alpha is important for defining the type of muscle fibers in skeletal muscle. In its absence, the muscles in mice did not tire as easily and the mice could exercise more extensively than normal mice. These data were then shown to be relevant to humans, as the team found that specific variants at a given region of the IL15RA gene occurred with differing frequencies among groups of elite athletes doing different endurance sports.

TITLE: Loss of IL-15 receptor-alpha alters the endurance, fatigability, and metabolic characteristics of mouse fast skeletal muscles

Tejvir S. Khurana
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Phone: 215.573.2640; Fax: 215.573.5851; E-mail:

View this article at:


Contact: Karen Honey
Journal of Clinical Investigation

Related medicine news :

1. Launches Online Store “The Relief Shop” - What Does this Medical Supply Store Carry and How Can They Help You?
2. Web Content Management Enables Government Transparency, Participation, and Collaboration Online
3. DavisPTnetwork Partners with the New York Physical Therapy Association to Provide Online Continuing Education
4. PERSONALABS Offers Discounted Healthy Heart Online Blood Tests in February
5. Pharmahelper Pleased To Recognize Online Pharmacy Practice Standards Announced By Google Adwords
6. Online Dating Reinvents Itself with the Recent Roll-Out of, a Free Website that Focuses on a Person's Career in Education!
7. Adds Aventura Organic Clothes to Site and Announces Largest Online Selection of Stylish Organic Clothes for Men, Women and Children
8. Fire Protection Online Resolves Safety Concerns with CO2 Fire Extinguishers
9. JCI online early table of contents: Feb. 15, 2010
10. Fitness Trend Towards Online Personal Training Gets Real-World Weight Loss Results on
11. New Online Store Makes Buying Cosmetics a Healthy Choice
Post Your Comments:
(Date:7/24/2017)... ... July 24, 2017 , ... Clinical Quality Assurance:, Roles and ... 22-23, 2017 – Arlington, VA, , Early bird pricing for ... growing demands to track and report adverse events place even greater pressure on ...
(Date:7/24/2017)... Province (PRWEB) , ... July 24, 2017 , ... ... Medicine's "Chinese Medicine Clinical Vitiligo Hospital" was set up, and the awarding ceremony ... of traditional Chinese medicine, the head of the army's health system, and national ...
(Date:7/24/2017)... ... 2017 , ... “The Perfect Gift”: a customizable and interactive Bible study guide for children. “The ... born-again Christian. She has always accepted Christ as her Savior, yet never studied His ... the Spirit when she wrote this book to her children, so they would know the ...
(Date:7/24/2017)... ... ... “A Short Walk to the Mailbox”: a remarkable memoir of an unconventional ... Ed Clark. Ed Clark is a church music director and choral conductor. ... music and worship leader for over fifty years. He has a master’s degree ...
(Date:7/24/2017)... ... 24, 2017 , ... The Center for Addiction Recovery Training ... host a second Multiple Pathways of Recovery Conference on October 23-26, 2017. This ... from CCAR’s foundational principle – a belief in multiple pathways of recovery, aims ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:7/10/2017)... S.C. , July 10, 2017  BDI ... purchasing and patient support services organization serving specialty ... today the launch of four significant, value-added member ... market insights, better manage reimbursement and improve access ... and factor therapies. ...
(Date:7/6/2017)... division of Diplomat Specialty Infusion Group, is celebrating a decade of empowering ... celebrate its anniversary, ThriveRx recently launched a redesigned website at ... to create the best user experience for consumers and health care professionals. ... Diplomat Pharmacy ... "We,ve made several great strides throughout the past 10 years," ...
(Date:7/5/2017)... , July 5, 2017 Pace Analytical, a company of over 2,000 ... that they have acquired ESC Lab Sciences, further solidifying their position as the ... States . ... Vanderboom- President and CEO of Pace Analytical ... Lab Sciences out of Mt Juliet, TN , enhances Pace ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: