Navigation Links
JCI online early table of contents: Jan. 17, 2012
Date:1/17/2012

EDITOR'S PICK: Plasmacytoid DCs: tumor-killing immune cells

Some skin cancers, in particular basal cell carcinoma, can be successfully treated with a prescription cream containing the compound imiquimod. The antitumor effect of imiquimod is multifactorial. One of the more complex aspects of imiquimod's antitumor effects is its ability to modify the immune response. A team of researchers led by Maria Sibilia, at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria, has now identified a new way in which imiquimod modifies the immune system to clear tumors in a mouse model of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Specifically, the team found that topical application of imiquimod leads to the recruitment of immune cells known as plasmacytoid DCs to the site of the tumor. Moreover, exposure to imiquimod at the site of the tumor then converts these cells into tumor-cell killers. Nina Bhardwaj and colleagues, at New York University, New York, discuss in an accompanying commentary the implications of these data for antitumor therapies designed to combat both skin cancers and other cancers.

TITLE: Imiquimod clears tumors in mice independent of adaptive immunity by converting pDCs into tumor-killing effector cells

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Maria Sibilia
Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Phone: 43.1.4277.65131; Fax: 43.1.4277.65193; E-mail: maria.sibilia@meduniwien.ac.at.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/61034?key=bce90e43bcd605799561

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY
TITLE: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells lead the charge against tumors

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Nina Bhardwaj
The New York University Langone Medical Center and the New York University Cancer Institute, New York, New York, USA.
Phone: 212.263.5814; Fax: 212.263.6729; E-mail: Nina.Bhardwaj@med.nyu.edu.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/61345?key=3f09068264890ed311f8


VIROLOGY: How to prevent hepatitis B virus reproducing

Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health problem worldwide, despite the fact that a highly effective preventative vaccine exists. A modified form of the immune molecule IFN-alpha is commonly used to treat individuals infected with HBV. The rationale behind this is that IFN-alpha inhibits HBV replication in vivo and in vitro, although the mechanisms by which it does this have not been clearly defined. A team of researchers led by Maura Dandri, at University Medical Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; and Massimo Levrero, at Sapienza University, Italy has now identified a new mechanism by which IFN-alpha suppresses HBV replication in vitro and in vivo. The authors hope that this new insight could help in the development of new approaches to treat individuals infected with HBV.

TITLE: IFN-alpha inhibits HBV transcription and replication in cell culture and in humanized mice by targeting the epigenetic regulation of the nuclear cccDNA minichromosome

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Maura Dandri
University Medical Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
Phone: 49.40.741052949; Fax: 49.40.741057232; E-mail: m.dandri@uke.de.

Massimo Levrero
Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
Phone: 39.06.49970892; Fax: 39.06.4452388; E-mail: massimo.levrero@uniroma1.it.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/58847?key=3a5c4549350a2300311e


ONCOLOGY: Modulating the inflammatory environment in liver cancer modifies outcome

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In most cases, HCC develops after a sustained period of inflammation in the liver, for example as a result of alcoholism or infection with hepatitis C virus. Genetic mutations that activate the signaling molecule beta-catenin are seen in a subset of HCCs, and individuals with these tumors have a better prognosis. A team of researchers, led by Mireille Viguier and Christine Perret, at the Institut Cochin, Paris, has now generated data in mice that provide a potential molecular explanation for this.

Viguier, Perret, and colleagues found that activation of beta-catenin signaling modulates the inflammatory environment to control tumor development. Specifically, beta-catenin signaling was shown to activate both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules. The resulting inflammatory environment, while permissive for tumor development also contained components that somewhat restrained tumor development and spread to distant sites. Detailed analysis of these restraining components identified potential new targets for immunotherapeutic approaches to treating patients with HCC.

TITLE: Oncogenic beta-catenin triggers an inflammatory response that determines the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Mireille Viguier
Institut Cochin, INSERM U1016, UMR CNRS 8104, Universit Ren Descartes, Paris, France.
Phone: 33.1.57.27.80.06; Fax: 33.1.57.27.80.87; E-mail: mireille.viguier@inserm.fr.

Christine Perret
Institut Cochin, INSERM U1016, UMR CNRS 8104, Universit Ren Descartes, Paris, France.
Phone: 33.1.44.41.25.64; Fax: 33.1.44.41.24.21; E-mail: christine.perret@inserm.fr.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/43937?key=745e8aa8846e5f104b79


NEPHROLOGY: Maintaining integrity in the kidney

A central function of our kidneys is to filter waste from our blood and to divert it into our urine. Specialized cells known as podocytes are key to the integrity of the filtration barrier. Many kidney diseases are characterized by abnormal function of the filtration barrier, which occurs because podocyte morphology (structure) is altered. Such diseases are known as glomerular diseases. A team of researchers led by Lawrence Holzman, at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, has now identified a molecular pathway involved in the alterations to podocyte morphology observed in mouse models of glomerular disease. They team suggest that inhibitors of molecules in this signaling pathway, for example inhibitors of the FAK-Cas-Crk protein complex, might help prevent the podocyte structural changes associated with glomerular diseases.

TITLE: Crk1/2-dependent signaling is necessary for podocyte foot process spreading in mouse models of glomerular disease

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Lawrence B. Holzman
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Phone: 215.573.1831; Fax: 215.898.1830; E-mail: lholzman@upenn.edu.

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/60070?key=26e460af554f691c1702


'/>"/>

Contact: Karen Honey
press_releases@the-jci.org
734-546-5242
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. JCI online early table of contents: Jan. 9, 2012
2. Simple online tool to aid GPs in early ovarian cancer diagnosis
3. JCI online early table of contents: Dec. 27, 2011
4. JCI online early table of contents: Dec. 19, 2011
5. Online guide helps health organizations adopt electronic health records
6. JCI online early table of contents: Dec. 12, 2011
7. JCI online early table of contents: Nov. 21, 2011
8. Bullying Moves From Online to Text-Messaging: Study
9. JCI online early table of contents: Nov. 14, 2011
10. JCI online early table of contents: Nov. 7, 2011
11. Online Forums Can Help Women Cope With Pregnancy Loss
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... The Visiting Nurse Association (VNA) of Somerset ... of specialty vendors and unique items from across the nation, this holiday-themed event will ... services offered by the VNA. The boutique will be open Saturday, November 4 ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... ... Yisrayl Hawkins, Pastor and Overseer at The House of Yahweh, has released a ... books in the Holy Scriptures, Revelation. The Book of Revelation paints a picture of ... have tossed it off as mere rubbish, but Yisrayl Hawkins says that is because ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... “The Journey: From the Mountains to ... to save lost souls in the Philippines. “The Journey: From the Mountains to the ... teacher of the Bible. She has taught all ages and currently teaches a class ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... sleep apnea using cutting-edge Oventus O2Vent technology. As many as 18 ... characterized by frequent cessation in breathing. Oral appliances can offer significant relief to ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... October 12, 2017 , ... IsoComforter, Inc. ... products, announced today the introduction of an innovative new design of the shoulder pad. ... so you get maximum comfort while controlling your pain while using cold therapy. By ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:9/27/2017)... and NEW YORK , Sept. 27, 2017 ... mobile health and big data solutions, today announced that its MyDario product ... check your local TV listings for when The Dr. Oz Show airs ... The ... this month. ...
(Date:9/22/2017)... 2017 AVACEN Medical (AVACEN) announced that its ... helping those with the widespread pain associated with fibromyalgia ... in Essex, England commented, "I ... experiencing no sleep at all, tremendous pain, with every ... recommend [the AVACEN 100] enough, how this has and ...
(Date:9/13/2017)... , Sept. 13, 2017   OrthoAtlanta has ... the Atlanta Football Host Committee (AFHC) for the 2018 College ... Jan. 8, 2018, at Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta, ... of the AFHC "I,m In" campaign, participating in many activities ... ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: