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JCI online ahead of print table of contents for May 16, 2014
Date:5/16/2014

Targeting microbial translocation attenuates SIV-mediated inflammation

Patients with HIV often present with signs of immune activation and systemic inflammation, both of which are hypothesized to directly contribute to the development of AIDs in infected individuals. HIV and the related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) damage the gut mucosa, leading to translocation of microbes from the intestinal lumen to the general circulation, but it is not clear if microbial translocation is directly responsible for chronic HIV-associated inflammation. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Ivona Pandrea and colleagues at University of Pittsburgh report on a study that validates the microbial translocation hypothesis in SIV-infected pigtail macaques. Sevelamer, a drug that is used to reduce systemic LPS levels in chronic kidney disease patients, was given to SIV-infected animlas to reduce microbial translocation in the gut. Compared to controls, sevelamer-treated animals had decreased systemic LPS and reduced activation of peripheral CD4+ T cells. Importantly, sevelamer treatment dramatically lowered viral titers in the blood and reduced coagulation biomarkers that are associated with the development of cardiovascular co-morbidities. In the accompanying commentary, Liang Shan and Robert Siliciano of John's Hopkins School of Medicine discusse how control of microbial translocation could improve HIV outcomes.

TITLE: Early microbial translocation blockade reduces SIV-mediated inflammation and viral replication

AUTHOR CONTACT: Ivona Pandrea
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Phone: 412-624-3242; E-mail: pandrea@pitt.edu

MEDIA CONTACT Allison Hydzik
University of Pittsburgh
Phone: 412-647-9975; E-mail:hydzikam@upmc.edu

View this article at: '/>"/>

Contact: Corinne Williams
press_releases@the-jci.org
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Source:Eurekalert

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