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JCI early table of contents for May 15, 2013
Date:5/15/2013

Hot on the TRAIL of graft vs. host disease

For patients with leukemia and other hematological malignancies, transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCT) can be a powerfully effective therapy. In addition to the desirable anti-tumor effect, transplanted cells can also attack the host tissue, resulting in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Arnab Ghosh and colleagues at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center found that expression of a protein that causes cell death, TRAIL, in transplanted cells was critical for an effective anti-tumor response. Immune cells engineered to express higher levels of TRAIL killed the cells that cause GVHD and increased anti-tumor activity. In an accompanying commentary, Nelson Chao suggests that new therapeutics may take advantage of TRAIL-expressing cells to promote an anti-tumor response without putting patients at risk for GVHD.

TITLE: Fratricidal TRAIL+T cells suppress GVHD and augment anti-tumor activity after bone marrow transplantation

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Arnab Ghosh
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, , USA
Phone: 646-888-2317; E-mail: ghosha1@mskcc.org

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/66301?key=66e50de3cd0d7e99a4d8

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY

TITLE: Blazing a new TRAIL in hematopoietic cell transplantation

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Nelson J. Chao
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
Phone: 919-668-1011; Fax: 919-668-1091; E-mail: chao0002@mc.duke.edu

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/69909?key=43f0101604c8f6bb12da

Researchers identify signals that direct the immune system to reject a transplanted organ

Organ transplant rejection occurs when the transplant recipient's immune system identifies the transplanted organ as foreign tissue and attacks it. It was previously thought that T cells, the immune cells that mediate rejection, must first be activated by molecules known as chemokines in order to migrate to the transplanted organ. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Fadi Lakkis and colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh used mice to demonstrate that chemokine stimulation of T cells is not required for migration. Instead, these cells must come into contact with immune-stimulating proteins (antigens) that are specifically expressed by the transplanted organ. In an accompanying commentary, Terry Strom discusses how these findings could have important implications for the design of novel anti-rejection therapeutics.

TITLE: Cognate antigen directs CD8+ T cell migration to vascularized transplants

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Fadi G. Lakkis
Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Phone: 412 383-5774; Fax: 412-383-9990; E-mail: lakkisf@upmc.edu

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/66722?key=5debbc8dd29fc8e22b12

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY

TITLE: Transplant rejection and paradigms lost

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Terry Strom
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
Phone: 1-617-735-2880; Fax: 1 617 667-0923; E-mail: tstrom@bidmc.harvard.edu

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/69385?key=ee127335912183bcc713

ALSO IN THIS ISSUE

TITLE: Safe TNF-based antitumor therapy following p55TNFR reduction in intestinal epithelium

AUTHOR CONTACT:
George Kollias
Biomedical Sciences Research Centre (BSRC) "Alexander FLEMING", Institute o, Vari, GRC
Phone: 00302109656507; E-mail: kollias@fleming.gr

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/65624?key=95dcd1ab2462f49889fd

TITLE: Lamin B1 mediates cell-autonomous neuropathology in a leukodystrophy mouse model

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Ying-Hui Fu
University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Phone: 415-502-5614; E-mail: Ying-hui.fu@ucsf.edu

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/66737?key=16236a3ef2fb14130105

TITLE: PD-L1 blockade synergizes with IL-2 therapy in reinvigorating exhausted T cells

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Rafi Ahmed
Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Phone: 404-727-3571; E-mail: rahmed@emory.edu

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/67008?key=331ea19f479943e34a83

TITLE: The genomic landscape of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Andreas Beutler
Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN, USA
Phone: 507 2848009; E-mail: beutler.andreas@mayo.edu

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/67963?key=946338907594d6d91dfd

TITLE: Specific peripheral B cell tolerance defects in patients with multiple sclerosis

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Eric Meffre
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
Phone: 1-203-737-4535; Fax: 1-203-785-7903; E-mail: eric.meffre@yale.edu

View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/68775?key=e407c6c0d214181b9fad


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Contact: Jillian Hurst
press_releases@the-jci.org
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Source:Eurekalert

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