Navigation Links
Insulin-creating cell research may lead to better diabetes treatment
Date:10/28/2010

LIVERMORE, Calif. Beta cells, which make insulin in the human body, do not replicate after the age of 30, indicating that clinicians may be closer to better treating diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is caused by a loss of beta cells by auto-immunity while type 2 is due to a relative insufficiency of beta cells. Whether beta cells replicate after birth has remained an open issue, and is critically important for designing therapies for diabetes.

By using radioactive carbon-14 produced by above-ground nuclear testing in the 1950s and '60s, researchers have determined that the number of beta cells remains static after age 30.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientist Bruce Buchholz, with collaborators from the National Institutes of Health, used two methods to examine adult human beta cell turnover and longevity.

Using LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Buchholz measured the amount of carbon 14 in DNA in beta cells and discovered that after age 30, the body does not create any new beta cells, thus decreasing the capacity to produce insulin as a person ages.

Carbon 14 atmospheric concentration levels remained relatively stable until the Cold War, when above-ground nuclear bomb tests caused a sharp increase, or peak, which decreased slowly after the end of above-ground testing in 1963. This spike in carbon 14 in the atmosphere serves as a chronometer of the past 57 years.

Because DNA is stable after a cell has gone through its last cell division, the concentration of carbon 14 in DNA serves as a date mark for when a cell was born and can be used to date cells in humans

"We found that beta cells turnover up to about age 30 and there they remain throughout life," Buchholz said. "The findings have implications for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes."

Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease in which the body attacks beta cells. Both genetic predisposition and environmental triggers that are poorly understood have been implicated in the disease development. Disease onset is frequent during childhood but can occur throughout life and requires lifelong insulin injections/pump delivery. The body simply lacks the ability to make insulin. Type 2 diabetes (often called adult onset diabetes) is common in older people whose ability to secrete sufficient insulin to regulate blood sugar deteriorates as they age and is often due to increased demand in obese people.

"It could be due to loss of beta cells with age," Buchholz said. "The body doesn't make new ones in adulthood and there might not be enough cells to control blood sugar."

In addition, as the obesity rate increases, the incidence of type 2 diabetes increases and it is now starting to be found in obese children.

Buchholz said there is active research in stem cell therapies to replace lost beta cells for both types of diabetes. "But with these new findings, it isn't clear how easy it will be to get the body to make more beta cells in adulthood, when it is not a natural process," he said. "At the surface, it seems like coaxing the body to do what it does naturally will be easier to accomplish."


'/>"/>

Contact: Anne Stark
stark8@llnl.gov
925-422-9799
DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. National research study to assess new treatment for painful vertebral fractures
2. Henry Ford physicist awarded for cancer radiation therapy research
3. U of M researchers identify possible key to treating, understanding post-traumatic stress disorder
4. Tumor suppressor acts as oncogene in some cancers, say Mayo Clinic researchers
5. EMBO recognizes 63 researchers for advances in life sciences
6. VCA fellowship funding to extend ovarian cancer research
7. Newfoundland researchers crack the genetic code of a sudden death cardiac killer
8. Researchers find pathway that drives spread of pediatric bone cancer in preclinical studies
9. Quebec City researchers pave the way for novel treatment of pulmonary hypertension
10. Mount Sinai researchers discover origin of immune cells in the brain
11. UC San Diego researchers identify factor boosting leukemias aggressiveness
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/24/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... Marcy was in a crisis. Her son ... lash out at his family verbally and physically. , “When something upset him, he couldn’t ... would use it. He would throw rocks at my other children and say he was ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Global law firm Greenberg Traurig, P.A. announced ... attorneys chosen by their peers for this recognition are considered among the top 2 ... received special honors as members of this year’s Legal Elite Hall of Fame: ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Comfort Keepers® of San Diego, ... and the Road To Recovery® program to drive cancer patients to and from their ... to ensure the highest quality of life and ongoing independence. Getting to and ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... People across the U.S. are sharpening their pencils and honing their writing ... which patients and their families pay tribute to a genetic counselor by nominating him ... Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Annual Education Conference (AEC) this September. , In April, Genome ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... York, NY (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 ... ... publication Haute Living, is proud to recognize Dr. Barry M. Weintraub as a ... that “the most beautiful women in the world, and the most handsome men, ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Research ... MEMS Devices Medical Market Analysis 2016 - Forecast to 2022" ... The report contains up to date financial data ... analysis. Assessment of major trends with potential impact on the ... analysis of market segmentation which comprises of sub markets, regional ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Calif. , June 23, 2016 ... CST on Thursday, July 7, 2016 , , , , ... ) , , , , EXPERT PANELISTS:  , , ... Naik; Senior Industry Analyst, Christi Bird; Senior Industry Analyst, Divyaa Ravishankar ... The global pharmaceutical industry is witnessing an exceptional ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016  Guerbet announced today that it has been ... Award . One of 12 suppliers to ... its support of Premier members through exceptional local customer ... commitment to lower costs. ... our outstanding customer service from Premier," says Massimo ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: