Navigation Links
Institutional betrayal magnifies post-trauma effects of unwanted sexual activity
Date:3/8/2013

EUGENE, Ore. -- (March 8, 2013) -- A study of 345 female university students found that 233 of them had experienced at least one unwanted sexual experience in their lifetime, and 46 percent of those victims also experienced betrayal by the institution where incidents occurred. In the final analysis, researchers found, those who experienced institutional betrayal suffered the most in four post-trauma measurement categories, including anxiety and dissociation.

The study by the University of Oregon's doctoral student Carly Parnitzke Smith and Jennifer J. Freyd, professor of psychology, introduces a 10-item analysis tool -- the Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire -- designed to assess institutional betrayal and involvement. The study appears in the Journal of Traumatic Stress and comes in the same month that "Blind to Betrayal," a new book co-authored by Freyd and UO psychologist Pamela Birrell, was published.

"Our work on institutional betrayal has coincided with increased public awareness of the harm inflicted by unresponsive institutions surrounding traumatic events," Freyd said. "In describing the form and effects of this type of betrayal, we hope to eventually turn the dialogue towards opportunities for institutions to protect and nurture their members."

The study, Freyd said, takes the focus beyond the usual research on emotional, physical and sexual abuse in one-on-one situations to include the idea that victimization within institutions -- a university, including residence halls, fraternities and sororities, the military and organized religion -- that individuals trust adds a layer of trauma through the betrayal. Because the study surveyed the participants' lifetime, not all of the incidents occurred while at college, and many were no longer affiliated with the specific institutions where the betrayals occurred.

"Our results suggest that organizations need to widen the scope of their institutional actions and policies to both prevent and respond to sexual assaults," Freyd said. "This is a national problem. The findings at this one university reach well beyond it, and, we believe, are consistent with what would be found at universities across the country."

Originally, the study pool included 514 male and female students, who were unaware of the project's topic. The subject matter was disguised to avoid students' self-selecting into the research. Only experiences of the women, whose average age was 19.67, were included in the analysis.

The unwanted sexual experiences noted in the study were drawn from a 12-point scale in which higher scores involved verbal, physical and alcohol/drug coercion. Also included were unwanted sexual experiences without overt coercion but that involved sexual partners whose insistence or arousal led to the women feeling unable to prevent intercourse. On average, women reported three instances of unwanted sexual experiences.

An institution's role in such abuse if often indirect and occurs around individual acts of sexual violence, the authors wrote. It is within these large institutions where individuals expect to be safe.

The Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire created by Smith and Freyd surveys situations within organizational settings: experience seemed like no big deal; experience seemed more likely; not taking proactive steps; making it difficult to report an experience; covering up the experience, responding inadequately; and punishing you in some way. Victims responded to each item using a seven-point scale. The tool measure a participant's experience rather than underlying traits.

The experiences of institutional betrayal did not differ significantly across the types of unwanted sexual involvement, supporting the notion that institutional betrayal is an independent construct rather than an indicator of the perceived severity of an experience, the authors wrote in their conclusion. Those reporting a sense of institutional betrayal were found to have more severe post-traumatic symptoms of sexual abuse trauma, anxiety, sexual dysfunction and dissociation.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jim Barlow
jebarlow@uoregon.edu
541-346-3481
University of Oregon
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Book by University of Oregon psychologists opens eyes on betrayal
2. Reducing post-traumatic stress after ICU
3. Preventing post-traumatic stress
4. Predicting post-traumatic stress disorder before it happens
5. War is not necessarily the cause of post-traumatic stress disorder
6. Brain Anatomy May Play Role in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
7. Young girls more likely to report side effects after HPV vaccine
8. Preteens More Likely to Report HPV Vaccine Side Effects
9. Breast cancer patients suffer treatment-related side effects long after completing care
10. Breast Cancer Treatment Side Effects May Last for Years
11. Baldness Drug May Cause Sexual Side Effects: FDA
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Institutional betrayal magnifies post-trauma effects of unwanted sexual activity
(Date:9/20/2017)... ... ... Houston, Texas, investment firm CORDA Investment Management, LLC, believes in giving back. ... work and rolled up their sleeves to help with relief efforts. The team picked ... process of rebuilding. , CORDA founder Bonner C. Barnes notes that investment management firms ...
(Date:9/20/2017)... ... September 20, 2017 , ... “The Financial Favor of God; Second ... of God; Second Edition” is the creation of published author, Brooks Rathell. , “We ... to talk to you about the financial favor of God. Not only does it ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... ... September 19, 2017 , ... Only a few physicians were ... Brevard’s own Ross A. Clevens, MD, FACS . The founder and medical director ... and Reconstructive Surgeon who trained at Yale, Harvard and the University of Michigan. He ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... ... September 19, 2017 , ... ... for the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Project ... Award. , The Innovation to Action Award, a USAID Catalyst Award, recognizes ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... ... September 19, 2017 , ... The American College ... to its recently formed Corporate Roundtable, a group of individuals and organizations whose ... world. , Canyon Ranch is a unique collection of lifestyle-based immersion vacation settings ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:9/5/2017)...  Just 18 months after its February 2016 launch, ... the appointment of three new senior people to its ... Jones-Phillips and James Wright bring decades ... Tammy Wynne joins as Director, ... She has over ten years, experience in global market ...
(Date:9/1/2017)... Sept. 1, 2017 Michael Penna , ... , highlights opportunities for growth in his response to ... Marlin Equity is seeking a buyer for eMDs. Penna,s ... 22-year-old healthcare solutions Value Added Reseller and national leader ... "As the healthcare market continues to ...
(Date:9/1/2017)... , Sept. 1, 2017  Bayer will present the ... European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2017 Congress, September 8-12 ... will include new preclinical and clinical data on Bayer,s marketed ... earlier pipeline projects. ... best minds in cancer research at ESMO," said Carsten ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: