Navigation Links
Inherited Risk Factors Increase Odds of Developing Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists lead survey of genome that identifies new genes linked to cancer risk and treatment response

MEMPHIS, Tenn., Aug. 16 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have identified inherited variations in two genes that account for 37 percent of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), including a gene that may help predict drug response.

The findings stem from the first complete search of the human genetic blueprint or genome to look for inherited risk factors for ALL, the most common childhood cancer. Published in the August 16 advance online issue of Nature Genetics, the work offers the first proof based on a complete survey of the human genome that inheritance plays a role in childhood ALL.

Mary Relling, Pharm.D., St. Jude Pharmaceutical Sciences chair and the paper's senior author, estimated that individuals who inherited variations in genes known as ARID5B or IKZF1 are almost twice as likely to develop ALL as those without the variations. Even then, she said, the risk remains low. ALL strikes roughly one in every 75,000 Americans. Sixty percent are children and teenagers.

"The genetic variations alone are not enough to cause the cancer. Like all cancers, pediatric ALL is a multi-factor disease," Relling explained. "But these findings may give us a handle on the mechanism of the disease and drug responsiveness to it."

Exactly the same genes, ARID5B and IKZF1, were confirmed to be altered in British children with ALL. That study was published by the Institute of Cancer Research in Surrey, England, in the same issue of Nature Genetics.

In the St. Jude study, researchers collaborated with colleagues from the Children's Oncology Group (COG), who provided additional cases for genetic analysis. COG is an international group of medical institutions that cooperate in research studies and clinical trials of childhood cancer treatment.

Researchers scanned the genomes of 441 children with ALL and a control group of 17,958 cancer-free individuals for more than 300,000 common genetic variations known as single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs.

The search found 18 SNPs that differed significantly in frequency between individuals with and without ALL. Six of the 18 SNPs were associated with one of the four main subtypes of ALL.

The six included two SNPs linked to the ARID5B gene. About 11 percent of those in the control group inherit the leukemia-risk ARID5B variations from both mother and father, Relling said. In comparison, the same high-risk ARID5B SNPs were found in 38 percent of patients with a type of ALL known as hyperdiploid ALL. That subtype accounts for about 20 percent of ALL patients.

Three more SNPs were traced to the genes IKZF1 and DDC, which are next to each other on chromosome 7. IKZF1 is also known as IKAROS. Earlier research from St. Jude and COG linked acquired changes in IKZF1 to an increased risk of ALL relapse. The new evidence tying inherited variation in IKZF1 to an increased risk of developing ALL underscores the need for medications targeting variations in this gene, Relling said.

Both ARID5B and IKZF1 play important roles in normal development of lymphoid or white blood cells, she said. ARID5B belongs to a family of genes that make transcription factors, which help regulate gene activity. "If they have an inherited variation that affects the function of those genes, these are plausible pathways for how a normal lymphoid cell could be disrupted and transformed into a cancer cell," Relling said.

Inherited variations in ARID5B might also influence patient response to chemotherapy, particularly to the drug methotrexate. "We found this same inherited variation also affected accumulation of the drug in leukemia cells. It accumulates better. That allows us to use a lower dose and still cure the leukemia," Relling explained. "These findings may identify a new marker that could be used to help decide on doses of methotrexate in patients with varying ARID5B status."

Scientists are not sure how the SNPs they identified influence cancer risk. But studies of variation in gene expression associated with the ARID5B gene indicate the inherited variations have a biological function. Researchers must still determine what it is.

Other authors of this paper include Lisa Trevino, Wenjian Yang, Deborah French, Geoffrey Neale, James Downing, Susana Raimondi, Ching-Hon Pui and William Evans, all of St. Jude; Stephen Hunger, University of Colorado, Denver; William Carroll, New York University Medical Center, New York; Meenakshi Devidas, University of Florida, Gainesville; and Cheryl Willman, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

This study was supported by the National Cancer Institute, the National Institutes of Health/National Institutes of General Medical Sciences Pharmacogenetics Research Network and ALSAC.

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital is internationally recognized for its pioneering work in finding cures and saving children with cancer and other catastrophic diseases. Founded by late entertainer Danny Thomas and based in Memphis, Tenn., St. Jude freely shares its discoveries with scientific and medical communities around the world. No family ever pays for treatments not covered by insurance, and families without insurance are never asked to pay. St. Jude is financially supported by ALSAC, its fundraising organization. For more information, please visit

SOURCE St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Copyright©2009 PR Newswire.
All rights reserved

Related medicine news :

1. Gene newly linked to inherited ALS may also play role in common dementia
2. Different mutations in single gene suggest Parkinsons is primarily an inherited genetic disorder
3. Inherited melanoma risk: What you do know does help you
4. Gene Mutation Tied to Inherited Atrial Fibrillation
5. Inherited form of hearing loss stems from gene mutation
6. New findings may improve treatment of inherited breast cancer
7. Turning back the Clock in Inherited Anemias
8. Gene Mutation Tied to Inherited Fatal Lung Disease
9. Gene Mutation Linked to Inherited ALS
10. Personalized genome sequencing reveals coding error in gene for inherited pancreatic cancer
11. Study gives more proof that intelligence is largely inherited
Post Your Comments:
(Date:6/26/2016)... Cary, North Carolina (PRWEB) , ... June 26, 2016 , ... ... the release of a new product that was developed to enhance the health of ... harvested for centuries. , The two main herbs in the PawPaws Cat Kidney ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... ... temporary closing of Bruton Memorial Library on June 21 due to a possible lice infestation, ... aspect of head lice: the parasite’s ability to live away from a human host, and ... necessary one in the event that lice have simply gotten out of control. , As ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... ... Friday, June 10, Van Mitchell, Secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental ... exemplary accomplishments in worksite health promotion. , The Wellness at Work Awards took place ... BWI Marriott in Linthicum Heights. iHire was one of 42 businesses to receive an ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... crisis. Her son James, eight, was out of control. Prone to extreme mood shifts and ... him, he couldn’t control his emotions,” remembers Marcy. “If there was a knife on ... say he was going to kill them. If we were driving on the freeway, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... BioMedics, Inc, makers of Topricin and MyPainAway Pain Relief Products, join The ‘Business for a ... an hour by 2020 and then adjusting it yearly to increase at the same rate ... assure the wage floor does not erode again, and make future increases more predictable. , ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016   Pulmatrix, Inc ... company developing innovative inhaled drugs, announced today that it ... Russell Investments reconstituted its comprehensive set of U.S. ... "This is an important milestone for Pulmatrix," said ... increase shareholder awareness of our progress in developing drugs ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Any dentist who ... challenges of the current process. Many of them do not ... the technical difficulties and high laboratory costs involved. And those ... offer it at such a high cost that the majority ... Dr. Parsa Zadeh , founder of Dental ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016 Capricor Therapeutics, Inc. ... biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development and ... enrollment in its ongoing randomized HOPE-Duchenne clinical trial ... of its 24-patient target. Capricor expects the trial ... of 2016, and to report top line data ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: