Navigation Links
Human Culture May Date Back 44,000 Years
Date:8/3/2012

FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Modern human behavior can now be traced back almost 44,000 years, new research indicates.

Previous studies suggested the hunter-gatherer culture developed only 10,000 to 20,000 years ago, with the African San people. A new analysis of objects found at Border Cave in the foothills of the Lebombo Mountains in South Africa, however, revealed modern human culture emerged much earlier.

"The dating and analysis of archaeological material discovered at Border Cave in South Africa has allowed us to demonstrate that many elements of material culture that characterize the lifestyle of San hunter-gatherers in southern Africa were part of the culture and technology of the inhabitants of this site 44,000 years ago," study co-author Lucinda Backwell, senior researcher in paleoanthropology at Wits University in Johannesburg, South Africa, said in a news release.

An international team of researchers led by Francesco d'Errico, director of research at the French National Research Center, dated and examined artifacts found at Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. They found the people who lived there about 44,000 years ago used digging sticks weighted with perforated stones. These sticks were similar to those used by the African San people.

"They adorned themselves with ostrich egg and marine shell beads, and notched bones for notational purposes," Backwell said. "They fashioned fine bone points for use as awls and poisoned arrowheads. One point is decorated with a spiral groove filled with red ochre, which closely parallels marks that San make to identify their arrowheads when hunting."

Chemical analyses of residue on some of the artifacts also revealed they were used to hold and carry poison. The researchers pointed out this is the earliest evidence for the use of poison.

They also found a lump of beeswax mixed with other substances.

"This complex compound used for hafting arrowheads or tools, directly dated to 40,000 years ago, is the oldest known evidence of the use of beeswax," Backwell said.

Also found at Border Cave were warthog tusks shaped into awls and possibly spearheads. After a chemical analysis of resin residue on certain tools, the researchers also confirmed that small pieces of stone were used to equip hunting weapons.

Although stone tool technology appears to have evolved gradually, other artifacts appeared to emerge unexpectedly. The researchers concluded rates of cultural change are best understood when documented regionally.

The research was published in this week's online issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

More information

The University of Iowa provides more information on the San people of Africa.

-- Mary Elizabeth Dallas

SOURCE: University of the Witwatersrand, news release, July 30, 2012.


'/>"/>
Copyright©2012 ScoutNews,LLC.
All rights reserved  

Related medicine news :

1. Researchers fish-eye view could offer insights for human vision
2. Immune responses can be generated locally within human melanoma skin metastases
3. New Seal Flu Could Pose Threat to Humans
4. Humans Might Be Hard-Wired to Love Thy Neighbor
5. American Society of Human Genetics to hold 2012 annual meeting, Nov. 6 to 10, in San Francisco
6. Human papillomavirus types do not replace others after large-scale vaccination
7. Novel pig model may be useful for human cancer studies
8. Study Gives First Evidence That Adult Human Lungs Can Regrow
9. Mouse With Human-Like Immune System Could Advance AIDS Research
10. SIgN scientists discover dendritic cells key to activating human immune responses
11. UW scientists discover why human body cannot fight HIV infection
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Human Culture May Date Back 44,000 Years
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... 2016 , ... First Choice Emergency Room , the largest network of ... Medical Director of its new Mesquite-Samuell Farm facility. , “We are pleased to ... said Dr. James M. Muzzarelli, Executive Medical Director of First Choice Emergency Room. ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... 2016 , ... On Friday, June 10, Van Mitchell, Secretary of the Maryland ... iHire in recognition of their exemplary accomplishments in worksite health promotion. , The Wellness ... & Wellness Symposium at the BWI Marriott in Linthicum Heights. iHire was one of ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... Those who have experienced traumatic events may suffer from a complex set of ... or alcohol abuse, as a coping mechanism. To avoid this pain and suffering, Serenity ... event. , Trauma sufferers tend to feel a range of emotions, from depression, guilt, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... Conference and Scientific Sessions in Dallas that it will receive two significant new ... the grants came as PHA marked its 25th anniversary by recognizing patients, medical ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Comfort Keepers® of San Diego, ... and the Road To Recovery® program to drive cancer patients to and from their ... to ensure the highest quality of life and ongoing independence. Getting to and ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016   Bay ... Rehabilitation Network,s Dean Center for Tick Borne ... Medicine and Rehabilitation, MIT Hacking Medicine, University of ... Innovation, today announced the five finalists of ... Lyme disease.  More than 100 scientists, clinicians, researchers, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... 24, 2016 The Academy of Managed Care ... that would allow biopharmaceutical companies to more easily ... make formulary and coverage decisions, a move that addresses ... medicines. The recommendations address restrictions in the ... the drug label, a prohibition that hinders decision makers ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... June 24, 2016 Research and Markets ... for Companion Diagnostic Tests" report to their offering. ... Companion Diagnostics The World Market for Companion ... medicine diagnostics. Market analysis in the report includes the following: ... (In Vitro Diagnostic Kits) by Region (N. America, EU, ROW), ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: