Navigation Links
Human Brain Cells Used to Make Mice Smarter
Date:3/7/2013

By Amy Norton
HealthDay Reporter

THURSDAY, March 7 (HealthDay News) -- Implanting a type of human brain cell into newborn mice makes them "smarter" as adults, scientists have found -- an achievement experts say could aid in understanding and treating human brain diseases.

It sounds a bit like science fiction, but many studies have looked at the effects of implanting rodent brains with human cells, said Paul Sanberg, a professor of neuroscience at the University of South Florida, in Tampa.

What's new here is that researchers were able to implant mice with human brain cells called glial cells, see those cells mature and act like human ones, and see the effects on the mice's learning, said Sanberg, who was not involved in the research.

"That's exciting," he said. "The cells were still functioning like human cells, and they actually enhanced aspects of learning."

The goal, though, is not to create brainy mice. The hope is to open up new ways to understand human brain diseases and develop therapies for them, said Dr. Steven Goldman, chairman of neurology at the University of Rochester, in New York, and one of the researchers on the study.

Human brains have different types of cells. Neurons are considered the workhorses, sending electrical and chemical signals to each other. Glial cells are seen as "support" cells that help transfer information among neurons.

But the relative size of glial cells in the human brain is bigger compared to non-primate animals. Humans also have more of them, and greater diversity in them, Goldman said. It has been thought that the evolution of glial cells may have been important to allowing humans to become as smart as they are.

The new findings, which appear in the March 7 issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell, support that theory.

Sanberg said there has already been a growing appreciation of the importance of glial cells in degenerative brain diseases. Multiple sclerosis is the "classic example of a glial disease," he said. But research suggests impaired glial cells are involved in an array of disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's.

Being able to study the function -- and dysfunction -- of human glial cells in rodent brains could give researchers insight into many diseases, Sanberg and Goldman said.

For the study, Goldman's team implanted human glial stem cells into the brains of newborn mice. Stem cells are primitive cells that give rise to mature, specialized cells.

The researchers found that over time, the human glial stem cells matured and replaced the mouse glial cells -- in essence, "taking over their brains," Goldman said.

His team then used mouse-appropriate learning tests -- like the classic escape-from-the-maze challenge -- to compare the animals' functioning with that of mice with no human glial cells.

"We thought these mice should be smarter. They should be able to learn faster," Goldman said. "And that's what we found."

"It's a remarkable finding," said James McGaugh, a research professor of neurobiology and behavior at the University of California, Irvine.

The results "elevate the role" of glial cells in human brain functioning, said McGaugh, who was not involved in the research. As for human health and disease, he added, "I don't see any immediate implications. But clearly these are exciting findings that warrant further investigation."

Goldman and his colleagues are already using this line of research to study human disease. In a study published last month, they reported that they have been able to take stem cells from the skin of patients with certain brain diseases and use them to generate glial stem cells. The cells can be implanted into mice to gain a better understanding of those disorders, and to test new therapies, Goldman said.

Right now, the researchers are experimenting with cells taken from patients with schizophrenia and Huntington's disease.

More information

Learn more about degenerative brain diseases from the U.S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

SOURCES: Steven Goldman, M.D., Ph.D., chairman, neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, N.Y.; Paul Sanberg, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor, neuroscience, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa; James McGaugh, Ph.D., research professor, neurobiology and behavior, University of California, Irvine; Mar. 7, 2013, Cell Stem Cell


'/>"/>
Copyright©2012 ScoutNews,LLC.
All rights reserved  

Related medicine news :

1. After the human genome project: The human microbiome project
2. Dog Study Raises Prospect of Biological Pacemaker for Humans
3. Study reveals stem cells in a human parasite
4. Has evolution given humans unique brain structures?
5. Human heart development slower than other mammals
6. Secrets of human speech uncovered
7. Human Teeth Healthier in the Stone Age Than Today: Study
8. Emerging SARS-Like Virus Well-Suited to Attack Humans: Study
9. The same genetic defect causes Pompe disease in both humans and dogs
10. Are Humans Extraterrestrials From Other Star Systems in the Milky Way Galaxy? Lou Baldin Author of 13 Books on the Subject Thinks So
11. xR: The Human Genome Project has Delivered on its Promise to Treat Disease. Introducing GEMS, the Genetic Enzyme Methylation Syndrome
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Human Brain Cells Used to Make Mice Smarter
(Date:6/25/2016)... Viejo, California (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 , ... ... to fit their specific project," said Christina Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. ... fully customizable and all within Final Cut Pro X . Simply select a ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... As a lifelong Southern Californian, Dr. ... his M.D from the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. He trained in ... to complete his fellowship in hematology/oncology at the UCLA-Olive View-Cedars Sinai program where he ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 , ... On Friday, ... presented a Bronze Wellness at Work award to iHire in recognition of their exemplary ... part of the 7th annual Maryland Workplace Health & Wellness Symposium at the BWI ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... A recent article ... are unfamiliar with. The article goes on to state that individuals are now more ... these less common operations such as calf and cheek reduction. The Los Angeles area ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... June 19, 2016 is World ... with chronic pain and the benefits of holistic treatments, Serenity Recovery Center ... with Sickle Cell Disease. , Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a disorder of the ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- Any dentist who has made an implant supported denture ... of them do not even offer this as a viable ... costs involved. And those who ARE able to offer that ... cost that the majority of today,s patients would not be ... , founder of Dental Evolutions Inc. and inventor of Implanova ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016 Capricor Therapeutics, ... a biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development ... patient enrollment in its ongoing randomized HOPE-Duchenne clinical ... 50% of its 24-patient target. Capricor expects the ... quarter of 2016, and to report top line ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Ill. and BOGOTA, Colombia , June 23, 2016  Astellas today announced the establishment ... Astellas Farma Brasil as the company,s second affiliate in Latin America . ... ... General Manager of Astellas Farma Colombia ... ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: