Navigation Links
How the brain stays receptive
Date:1/9/2013

The channel protein Pannexin1 keeps nerve cells flexible and thus the brain receptive for new knowledge. Together with colleagues from Canada and the U.S., researchers at the Ruhr-Universitt Bochum led by the junior professor Dr. Nora Prochnow from the Department of Molecular Brain Research describe these results in PLoS ONE. In the study, mice comprising no Pannexin1 in memory-related brain structures displayed symptoms similar to autism. Their nerve cells lacked synaptic plasticity, i.e. the ability to form new synaptic contacts or give up old contacts based on the level of usage.

Pannexins are abundant in the central nervous system of vertebrates

Pannexins traverse the cell membrane of vertebrate animals and form large pored channels. They are permeable for certain signalling molecules, such as the energy storage molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The best known representative is Pannexin1, which occurs in abundance in the brain and spinal cord and among others in the hippocampus - a brain structure that is critical for long-term memory. Malfunctions of the pannexins play a role in the development of epilepsy and strokes.

No more scope in long-term potentiation

The research team studied mice in which the gene for Pannexin1 was lacking. Using cell recordings carried out on isolated brain sections, they analysed the long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Long-term potentiation usually occurs when new memory content is built - the contacts between nerve cells are strengthened; they communicate more effectively with each other. In mice without Pannexin1, the long-term potentiation occurred earlier and was more prolonged than in mice with Pannexin1. "It looks at first glance like a gain in long-term memory", says Nora Prochnow. "But precise analysis shows that there was no more scope for upward development." Due to the lack of Pannexin1, the cell communication in general was increased to such an extent that a further increase through the learning of new knowledge was no longer possible. The synaptic plasticity was thus extremely restricted. "The plasticity is essential for learning processes in the brain", Nora Prochnow explains. "It helps you to organise, keep or even to forget contents in a positive sense, to gain room for new inputs."

Autistic-like behaviour without Pannexin1

The absence of Pannexin1 also had an impact on behaviour: when solving simple problems, the animals were quickly overwhelmed in terms of content. Their spatial orientation was limited, their attention impaired and an increased probability for seizure generation occurred. "The behavioural patterns are reminiscent of autism. We should therefore consider the Pannexin1 channel more closely with regard to the treatment of such diseases", says the neurobiologist from Bochum.

Theory: feedback regulation gets out of hand without Pannexin1

According to the scientists' theory, nerve cells lack a feedback mechanism without Pannexin1. Normally the channel protein releases ATP, which binds to specific receptors and thus reduces the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Without Pannexin1 more glutamate is released, which leads to increased long-term potentiation. This causes the cell to lose its dynamic equilibrium, which is needed for an efficient learning process.


'/>"/>

Contact: Nora Prochnow
Nora.Prochnow@ruhr-uni-bochum.de
49-234-322-4406
Ruhr-University Bochum
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Lifetime of Speaking a 2nd Language May Boost Aging Brain
2. Brain Changes Found in Small Study of Former NFL Players
3. Cell loss in the brain relates to variations in individual symptoms in Huntingtons disease
4. USF and VA researchers find long-term consequences for those suffering traumatic brain injury
5. Rainfall, brain infection linked in sub-Saharan Africa
6. Brain Injury Doesnt Raise Dementia Risk for Most: Study
7. Study Tracks Kids Brain Activity While Watching Sesame Street
8. For One Woman, HPV Vaccine Was a No-Brainer
9. Electric stimulation of brain releases powerful, opiate-like painkiller
10. Imaging study examines effect of fructose on brain regions that regulate appetite
11. Second impact syndrome: A devastating injury to the young brain
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... 2016 , ... On June 10-11, 2016, A Forever Recovery, a holistic treatment ... Longest Breakfast Table in Battle Creek, MI, where the rehabilitation facility is located. This ... of the world’s leading providers of cereal and other breakfast foods. Its residents often ...
(Date:6/26/2016)... , ... June 26, 2016 , ... ... once they have been diagnosed with endometriosis. These women need a treatment plan ... require a comprehensive approach that can help for preservation of fertility and ultimately ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... "With 30 hand-drawn hand gesture animations, FCPX ... Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. , ProHand Cartoon’s package transforms over ... Cut Pro X . Simply select a ProHand generator and drag it above media ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... ... Friday, June 10, Van Mitchell, Secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental ... exemplary accomplishments in worksite health promotion. , The Wellness at Work Awards took place ... BWI Marriott in Linthicum Heights. iHire was one of 42 businesses to receive an ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... 24, 2016 , ... June 19, 2016 is World Sickle Cell Observance Day. ... the benefits of holistic treatments, Serenity Recovery Center of Marne, Michigan, has ... , Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a disorder of the red blood cells, which ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... Belgium , June 24, 2016 ... the appointment of Dr. Edward Futcher ... Non-Executive Director, effective June 23, 2016.Dr. Futcher was ... Nominations and Governance Committees.  As a non-executive member ... independent expertise and strategic counsel to VolitionRx in ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Any dentist who has ... of the current process. Many of them do not even ... technical difficulties and high laboratory costs involved. And those who ... it at such a high cost that the majority of ... Dr. Parsa Zadeh , founder of Dental Evolutions ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Research ... MEMS Devices Medical Market Analysis 2016 - Forecast to 2022" ... The report contains up to date financial data ... analysis. Assessment of major trends with potential impact on the ... analysis of market segmentation which comprises of sub markets, regional ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: