Navigation Links
How the body fights against viruses
Date:4/22/2014

This news release is available in German.

Scientists of the Max F. Perutz Laboratories of the University of Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna, together with colleagues of the ETH Zurich, have now shown how double stranded RNA, such as viral genetic information, is prevented from entering the nucleus of a cell. During the immune response against viral infection, the protein ADAR1 moves from the cell nucleus into the surrounding cytoplasm. There it modifies viral RNA to inhibit reproduction of the virus. But how is the human genome protected from inadvertent import of viral RNA into the nucleus? The current study of the research teams from Vienna and Zurich, published in PNAS Plus, sheds the first light on this question.

The human immune system: defense against germs

We are constantly exposed to bacteria and viruses. Luckily our body has developed a set of mechanisms the immune system to fend off and fight such attacks. Viruses are small particles that cannot survive outside of a host cell. Upon entering the body they release their genetic material into our cells in order to reproduce. This is one of the points where the body's immune system attacks: enzymes chemically modify the viral genetic information in a manner that renders it useless for the production of new virus particles.

ADAR1 immunological weapon to fight viruses

ADAR1 is one of the enzymes involved in the antiviral immune response. Usually it is located in the nucleus of the cell, but upon infection, ADAR1 relocates to the cytoplasm. It binds and chemically modifies the virus-RNA so that it cannot be used to produce new virus. But how does the cell make sure that ADAR1 doesn't take the bound viral RNA back into the nucleus? After all, the human genome is stored there and needs to be protected. This question was now investigated by the teams of Michael Jantsch from the Max F. Perutz Laboratories (MFPL) of the University of Vienna and Frdric Allain from the ETH Zurich. As part of the study, funded by a DACH grant for joint projects of German (D), Austrian (A) and Swiss (CH) research groups, Frdric Allain and his team solved the structure of the ADAR1 RNA-binding domain. This domain was first identified as an important module for RNA binding and cellular localization by the Viennese team around Michael Jantsch. The structure revealed that two modules flanking the RNA-binding region control nuclear transport. Further cell biological analysis by the Viennese team showed that ADAR1 could only relocate into the nucleus when the RNA-binding domain is present to connect the two nuclear transport modules. Michael Jantsch explains: "When we removed the RNA-binding domain, ADAR1 was unable to move into the nucleus. The same was the case when it was bound to viral double-stranded RNA. With the help of the scientists at the ETH we could show how this can be explained structurally."

Which RNAs flip the switch of ADAR1?

The bound RNA actually obstructs the way for ADRA1 to re-enter into the nucleus: the two nuclear transport modules cannot bind their partner that mediates transport across the nuclear envelope because the RNA makes this sterically impossible. "This type of mechanism has never been reported before. You can picture it similarly to driving into a car park. To open the gates you need to get a ticket by pressing a button on the ticket machine. This works fine, unless you transport something really bulky on the roof. In that case the transported goods prevent you from driving close enough to operate the ticket machine", exemplifies Michael Jantsch. Now, he and his team want to identify the RNAs that can actually flip this switch for ADAR1 so those that can be bound by ADAR1 and prevent its relocation into the nucleus. The researchers are also keen to find out if and which other cellular proteins location are regulated by RNA.


'/>"/>

Contact: Michael Jantsch
michael.jantsch@univie.ac.at
43-142-775-6230
University of Vienna
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Second largest research award at Notre Dame fights malaria and dengue fever
2. Passing bowls family-style teaches day-care kids to respond to hunger cues, fights obesity
3. MDA Fights Back Against Muscle Disease, Launches 2014 Muscle Walk Season on #GivingTuesday
4. FightSMA Announces Passage of National Pediatric Research Network Act by U.S. House of Representatives
5. Texas A&M biologist fights deadly gut bacteria, C. diff
6. Natural Body Defense Fights Inflammation Better With Its Improved All-natural Content
7. New Book Shows Children How the Body Fights Germs
8. All Natural Sunscreen Fights Hunger
9. Sport-Social for Autism Fights to Win Contest
10. Parker Waichman LLP Takes on the Credit Card Companies, Fights for Smaller Retailers that Form the U.S. Economy’s ‘Backbone’
11. Sons of Absent or Abusive Fathers May Pick More Bar Fights: Survey
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
How the body fights against viruses
(Date:10/13/2017)... QUEENS, N.Y (PRWEB) , ... October 13, 2017 , ... ... recently became a member of ElderCounsel, a national organization of elder law and special ... constantly changing laws and rules. It also provides a forum to network with elder ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... N.J. (PRWEB) , ... October 13, 2017 , ... The ... Holly Day Market. Featuring a collection of specialty vendors and unique items from across ... personalized and quality-focused health and wellness services offered by the VNA. The boutique ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Yisrayl Hawkins, Pastor and Overseer at ... of the most popular and least understood books in the Holy Scriptures, Revelation. The ... that have baffled scholars for centuries. Many have tossed it off as mere rubbish, ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... , ... “The Journey: From the Mountains to the Mission Field”: the story ... the Philippines. “The Journey: From the Mountains to the Mission Field” is the creation ... has taught all ages and currently teaches a class of ladies at her church, ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... , ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... now treating sleep apnea using cutting-edge Oventus O2Vent technology. As many ... sleep disorder characterized by frequent cessation in breathing. Oral appliances can offer significant ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/5/2017)... 5, 2017  In response to the nationwide ... Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) released prescribing recommendations that urge ... used as a first-line therapy to manage a ... Recognizing the value and importance ... "Opioid Prescribing: Acute and Postoperative Pain Management" stresses ...
(Date:10/2/2017)... , Oct. 2, 2017  Eli Lilly and Company ... results for the third quarter of 2017 on Tuesday, ... call on that day with the investment community and ... The conference call will begin at 9 a.m. ... access a live webcast of the conference call through ...
(Date:9/28/2017)... WASHINGTON , Sept. 28, 2017 Cohen ... to advance the use of wearable and home sensors ... brain disorders. Early Signal Foundation, a nonprofit organization focused ... populations, will provide an affordable analytical system to record ... ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: