Navigation Links
How many US deaths are caused by poverty, low levels of education and other social factors?
Date:6/16/2011

How researchers classify and quantify causes of death across a population has evolved in recent decades. In addition to long-recognized physiological causes such as heart attack and cancer, the role of behavioral factorsincluding smoking, dietary patterns and inactivitybegan to be quantified in the 1990s. More recent research has begun to look at the contribution of social factors to U.S. mortality. In the first comprehensive analysis of such studies, researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health found that poverty, low levels of education, poor social support and other social factors contribute about as many deaths in the U.S. as such familiar causes as heart attacks, strokes and lung cancer.

The full study findings are published online ahead of print in the American Journal of Public Health.

The research team, led by Sandro Galea, MD, DrPH, chair of the Mailman School Department of Epidemiology, estimated the number of U.S. deaths attributable to social factors using a systematic review of the available literature combined with vital statistics data. They conducted a MEDLINE search for all English-language articles published between 1980 and 2007 with estimates of the relation between social factors and adult all-cause mortality. Ultimately they considered 47 studies for meta-analysis. After calculating for the relative risks of mortality from social factors, researchers obtained prevalence estimates for each social factor using primarily Census Bureau data. Individual social factors included education, poverty, health insurance status, employment status and job stress, social support, racism or discrimination, housing conditions and early childhood stressors. Area-level social factors included area-level poverty, income inequality, deteriorating built environment, racial segregation, crime and violence, social capital and availability of open or green spaces.

The investigators found that approximately 245,000 deaths in the United States in the year 2000 were attributable to low levels of education, 176,000 to racial segregation, 162,000 to low social support, 133,000 to individual-level poverty, 119,000 to income inequality, and 39,000 to area-level poverty.

Overall, 4.5% of U.S. deaths were found to be attributable to povertymidway between previous estimates of 6% and 2.3%. However the risks associated with both poverty and low education were higher for individuals aged 25 to 64 than for those 65 or older.

"Social causes can be linked to death as readily as can pathophysiological and behavioral causes," points out Dr. Galea, who is also Gelman Professor of Epidemiology. For example, the number of deaths the researchers calculated as attributable to low education (245,000) is comparable to the number caused by heart attacks (192,898), which was the leading cause of U.S. deaths in 2000. The number of deaths attributable to racial segregation (176,000) is comparable to the number from cerebrovascular disease (167,661), the third leading cause of death in 2000, and the number attributable to low social support (162,000) compares to deaths from lung cancer (155,521).

"These findings argue for a broader public health conceptualization of the causes of mortality and an expansive policy approach that considers how social factors can be addressed to improve the health of populations," observed Dr. Galea.


'/>"/>

Contact: Stephanie Berger
sb2247@columbia.edu
212-305-4372
Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. 1 in 5 heart-attack deaths could be prevented with new drug
2. Preventing avoidable opioid-related deaths top priority for pain medicine field
3. Deaths and major morbidity from asbestos-related diseases in Asia likely to surge in next 20 years
4. Unintentional child injuries, deaths can be prevented, public health researchers say
5. Evidence-Based Heart Attack Care Reduces Deaths: Study
6. Narcotic pain relief drug overdose deaths a national epidemic
7. Deaths from drug overdose decline 35 percent after the opening of supervised injection site
8. Motorcycle Deaths Drop for Second Straight Year: Report
9. Overdose deaths down 35 percent after opening of Vancouvers supervised injection site: UBC-BC-CfE study
10. Unemployment Plays Role in Early Deaths, Research Shows
11. Late diagnosis is major factor in hospital cancer deaths
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Coveros, a ... has been awarded a contract by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services ... accelerate the enterprise use of Agile methodologies in a consistent and high value ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... First Healthcare Compliance ... management, will showcase a range of technology and learning solutions at the 68th ... and Expo to be held October 14–18, 2017 at the Mandalay Bay Resort ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... The company has developed ... consumer and regulatory authorities worldwide. From Children’s to Adults 50+, every formula has ... highest standard. , These products are also: Gluten Free, Non-GMO, Vegan, Soy ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... leader in post-acute health care, have expanded their existing home health joint venture ... , AccentCare has been operating a joint venture home health company with Asante, ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... ... HMP , a leader in healthcare events and education, today announced that ... ‘Best B-to-B Healthcare Website.’ Winners were announced during the Eddie & Ozzie Awards luncheon ... editorial and design excellence across a range of sectors. This year’s program included the ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/10/2017)... , Oct. 10, 2017   West Pharmaceutical ... innovative solutions for injectable drug administration, today shared the ... ID Adapter for improving the intradermal administration of polio ... Skin Vaccination Summit in May 2017 by Dr. ... Polio Department, World Health Organization (WHO), and recently published ...
(Date:10/4/2017)... 2017 OBP Medical , a ... devices, today announced regulatory approval from ... Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA)) to market ... retractor with integrated LED light source and smoke ... exposure of a tissue pocket or cavity during ...
(Date:10/2/2017)... 2017 The Rebound mobile app is poised to ... the tide of prescription drug addiction. The app empowers users ... and stepping down their dosage in a safe, controlled manner ... 2017; the first 100,000 people to sign up will enjoy ... ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: