Navigation Links
How Cervical Cancer Vaccines Came to Be
Date:1/18/2013

By Serena Gordon
HealthDay Reporter

FRIDAY, Jan. 18 (HealthDay News) -- The cervical cancer vaccine has turned into one of the biggest success stories in the field.

Although almost a half-million women develop cervical cancer annually, health experts predict that number is likely to drop dramatically in the coming years because of two vaccines that can prevent many cases of the disease.

It wasn't until the 1980s that researchers confirmed that most cases of cervical cancer were caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The most common sexually transmitted virus, HPV has more than 40 different strains that can affect the genital area, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Most people who are infected with HPV never know they've been infected.

"After the agent that causes cervical cancer was found to be HPV, the idea for a vaccine was obvious to many," said Dr. Alfred Saah, director of vaccines clinical research for Merck and Co., in Whitehouse Station, N.J. "The question then became which part of the virus was related to immunity and would be the best part of the virus to make a vaccine."

Saah said that work began in earnest in the early 1990s on cloning the relevant parts of the virus strains that would be needed for an effective vaccine. To prevent cervical cancer, the vaccine would need to teach the immune system to recognize the human papillomavirus cells so that it would respond by destroying those cells.

"The vaccine stimulates the body's immune system in several ways so that when the host is exposed to natural HPV, the immune system is ahead of the virus and neutralizes the virus before infection and disease can occur," Saah explained.

Once a potential vaccine was created, tests in animals showed it worked extremely well. Then, the vaccine had to pass phase 1 clinical trials in humans, which had to demonstrate that the vaccine causes the body's immune system to respond against the virus. Next up were phase 2 trials, which helped determine the lowest dose necessary to create an immune response.

Two large phase 3 trials followed, which Saah said together involved nearly 20,000 people. Their purpose was to assess both safety and efficacy.

Based on the positive results of these trials, the vaccine, which was developed by Merck and is now named Gardasil, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in June 2006. Since that time, another HPV vaccine -- Cervarix, made by GlaxoSmithKline -- also has been approved to prevent cervical cancer.

"Gardasil was the first HPV vaccine specifically designed to prevent cervical cancer," Saah said. "It [targets] four HPV types: HPV 6 and 11, which cause 90 percent of genital warts, and HPV types 16 and 18, which cause 70 percent of cervical cancers." In addition to cervical cancer, HPV has also been linked to cancers of the anus, penis, vagina and vulva, and to some cancers of the throat, according to Saah.

More information

Read more about all of the cancer vaccines that are being researched.

SOURCE: Alfred Saah, M.D., director, vaccines clinical research, Merck and Company, Whitehouse Station, N.J.


'/>"/>
Copyright©2012 ScoutNews,LLC.
All rights reserved  

Related medicine news :

1. Research makes connetion between tubal ligation and increase in cervical cancer rates
2. Cervical cancer screening in less-developed areas should be tailored to local conditions
3. New test may improve cervical cancer detection
4. Cervical cancer and pre-cancer cervical growths require single HPV protein
5. Cervical Disease Treatment Not Linked to Premature Birth Risk
6. Women With HIV May Not Have Higher Cervical Cancer Risk: Study
7. HIV-infected women do not appear to be at increased risk of cervical cancer
8. HPV testing in HIV-positive women may help reduce frequent cervical cancer screening
9. Lack of insurance linked to advanced stage cervical cancer
10. Cervical Cancer Spotted Later in Women Without Health Insurance
11. Simple assault and ground level fall do not require cervical spine CT
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
How Cervical Cancer Vaccines Came to Be
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... May 24, 2016 , ... To better understand the ... research award to examine gender differences in lung cancer. Today, the Lung Association announced ... Lung Cancer in Women Award, funded by the American Lung Association’s LUNG FORCE initiative, ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... , ... Jericho Project has named LaToya Williams-Belfort to the position of Chief ... and communications for the nationally-acclaimed nonprofit, working closely with CEO Tori Lyon and the ... at its roots. , “LaToya Williams-Belfort is joining Jericho at an exciting time ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... May 24, 2016 , ... ... at Sentara Northern Virginia Medical Center located in Woodbridge, VA. The project ... services into a single site. , The new 2 story building houses the ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... ... 24, 2016 , ... Regenerative Medicine is being transformed by ongoing research and ... protocols and patient results as have been achieved with Okyanos Cell Therapy ... of care for patients worldwide. , As the Medical Advisory Chairman at Okyanos, Eric ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... May 24, 2016 , ... Boyd Industries, ... Concealed Delivery Unit® (CDU), a groundbreaking new product for pediatric dentistry , at ... Dentistry in San Antonio, TX May 26-29. The Concealed Delivery Unit keeps dental hand ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/23/2016)... According to a new ... Product (Wheelchair, Scooters, Medical Beds, Bathroom Safety, Mechanical, ... Wound), Accessories (Lifting, Transfer) & by End User ... MarketsandMarkets, the patient handling equipment market is expected ... a CAGR of 10.5% during the forecast period ...
(Date:5/23/2016)... YORK , May 23, 2016 ... Spectrometry Market Size, Share, Development, Growth and Demand ... (Hybrid, Single and Other), by Application (Drug Discovery ... by End Users (Pharmaceuticals, Life Science and Biotechnology, ... by P&S Market Research, the global mass ...
(Date:5/23/2016)... , UAE, May 23, 2016 ... the importance of Precision Medicine and the role ...     The First International Conference of ... under the distinguished patronage and presence of Sheikh Nahyan bin ... conference focused in Precision Medicine, which helps provide personalized medicine ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: