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Hemorrhoids Are Common, Preventable and Treatable

FRIDAY, Feb. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Hemorrhoids are a hot topic online, and that's probably because they're so common.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration reports that "hemorrhoids" was the top-trending health-issue search in the United States in 2012 and most people -- up to 75 percent -- will be affected by hemorrhoids at some point in their lives, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

Hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed veins in the rectum or anus. The good news is there are several ways to treat hemorrhoids and ease the pain, itching or other symptoms they may cause, according to an article posted on the FDA's "Consumer Updates" Web page.

The uncomfortable condition usually affects adults aged 45 to 65 and hemorrhoids are typically caused by increased pressure in the veins of the anus. Obesity and inactivity play a role in who develops hemorrhoids. Pregnancy and childbirth can also increase women's risk for these protrusions.

When hemorrhoids do form, they occur inside the rectum (internal hemorrhoids) or near the anal opening (external hemorrhoids).

"You often can't see or feel the internal ones," said Dr. Herbert Lerner, a colon-rectal surgeon and FDA medical officer, in an agency news release. "But straining during bowel movements and constipation can cause these hemorrhoids to bleed and occasionally push through the anal opening."

Taking the following steps can keep stools soft and prevent hemorrhoids:

  • Eat fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Exercise and avoid sitting in one place for too long
  • Take stool softeners or fiber supplements

When a hemorrhoid pushes through the anal opening, it is known as a protruding or prolapsed hemorrhoid, which can be irritating. Blood can pool in an external hemorrhoid and form a clot, which can cause severe pain, swelling and inflammation, Lerner said.

Other common symptoms of hemorrhoids include the following:

  • itching (especially when sitting)
  • bright red blood on toilet tissue, stool or in the toilet (Dark red or black blood could be a sign of a more serious condition.)
  • painful bowel movements
  • hard, sore lumps near the anus

Hemorrhoids can be treated with several over-the-counter creams and other remedies. "These products may help you feel more comfortable, but they won't get rid of the underlying hemorrhoids, such as internal hemorrhoids, that commonly cause bleeding," Lerner noted.

Soaking in a warm bath regularly for 10 to 15 minutes and using wet toilet paper after a bowel movement can also ease mild symptoms of hemorrhoids, according to Dr. Rajat Malik, a gastroenterologist with the FDA.

"With these measures, mild symptoms should decrease in two to seven days," advised Malik in the news release. "If your symptoms don't improve with these home treatments, and certainly if they get worse, it's time to talk to your health care provider."

There are a number of procedures doctors can perform to treat hemorrhoids. For instance, where a hemorrhoid has a blood clot (thrombosis), doctors can remove the clot with a small incision.

"You can do this under local anesthesia and as an outpatient," Lerner said. "I've had a lot of uncomfortable, unhappy patients walk into my office with a thrombosis, and then leave happy after it's been excised."

Other procedures used to treat hemorrhoids include:

  • Ligation: a hemorrhoid's blood supply is cut off with a rubber band.
  • Sclerotherapy: a chemical solution is injected into a hemorrhoid to shrink it.
  • Coagulation: a laser or infrared light is used to shrink a hemorrhoid.
  • Hemorrhoidectomy: a surgical procedure used in more extreme cases to remove large hemorrhoids.

"FDA is responsible for reviewing the devices used in both ligation and coagulation," Lerner noted.

More information

The American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons provides more information on hemorrhoids.

-- Mary Elizabeth Dallas

SOURCE: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, news release, Feb. 11, 2013

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