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Gestational diabetes and low socioeconomic status linked with increased risk of ADHD in offspring
Date:1/2/2012

reater inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores. The results showed no difference in the risk for ADHD at baseline, but a two-fold increased risk at age 6 years among children exposed to GDM compared with children who were not exposed. There was also a two-fold increased risk for ADHD at baseline and at age 6 years among children in low SES families.

Children exposed to both GDM and low SES showed compromised neurobehavioral functioning, including lower IQ, poorer language abilities and diminished behavioral and emotional functioning. When examining the relationship of both GDM and SES exposure on outcomes, the authors found a 14-fold increased risk of developing ADHD among children exposed to both GDM and low SES. Conversely, children exposed to maternal GDM alone or low SES alone had no significant increased risk for ADHD.

"This study demonstrates that children of mothers with GDM raised in lower SES households are at far greater risk for developing ADHD and showing signs of suboptimal neurocognitive and behavioral development," the authors conclude. "Since ADHD is a disorder with high heritability, efforts to prevent exposure to environmental risks through patient education may help to reduce the nongenetic modifiable risk for ADHD and other developmental problems."

(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Published online January 2, 2012. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.784. Available pre-embargo to the media at www.jamamedia.org.)

Editor's Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

Editorial: Environment, Developmental Origins and ADHD

In an accompanying editorial, Joel Nigg, Ph.D., of Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, writes, "In the current issue of the Archives we see additional evidence, in a retrospective design, that early d
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