The report is published in the Sept. 16 issue of Nature.
Based on their initial success with gene therapy, Leboulch's group plans to treat another two patients. If they also respond well, they will enroll "a larger cohort" of patients, he said.
In addition, the researchers plan to treat patients who have sickle cell disease with the gene therapy as well, Leboulch said. The same technique can be used for both diseases, he said.
Leboulch concedes that the treatment is very expensive. But he hopes that if it becomes widely used, the price will drop, eventually costing less than a lifetime of monthly transfusions and chelating drugs.
Dr. Mustafa Tekin, an associate professor at the John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, said that "gene therapy has been long awaited for thalassemia."
"This is the first example of a successful gene therapy for beta-thalassemia," he said. "This brings great hope for patients for the final cure for the disorder."
However, there are possibilities of adverse effects, Tekin said. He joined the researchers in cautioning that treatment to date has been limited to just one patient.
Tekin said that the gene that absorbed the therapeutic gene is associated with certain cancers, such as leukemia. While the patient does not have signs of the cancer, it is important "to follow this patient for the long-term for signs of leukemia," he said.
More trials and patients are needed to really assess the effects and side effects of the treatment, Tekin said. Whether it will treat other forms of thalassemia isn't known, he added.
"One patient is important and a significant achievement, but you still need to see more patients to make sure that it works for many patients and also that it works safely," he said.
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