Navigation Links
Enlightening cancer cells
Date:7/1/2014

This news release is available in German.

Harald Janovjak, Assistant Professor at IST Austria, together with Michael Grusch, Associate Professor at the Institute of Cancer Research of the Medical University of Vienna, "remote-controlled" the behaviour of cancer cells with light, as reported this week in EMBO Journal (DOI: 10.15252/embj.201387695). This work is the first application of the new field of optogenetics to cancer research.

To understand the dynamics of cellular signaling, researchers need to activate and inactivate membrane receptor proteins, which serve as relays between a cell's outside and inside world. Ideally, this activation occurs on short timescales (seconds to minutes) and in targeted locations (micrometers to millimeters). However, such a high level of precision in activation cannot be achieved with current pharmacological and genetic methods. Optogenetics uses light to control cell activity, and has the advantage that light can be applied and removed precisely both in space and time. Janovjak, Grusch and colleagues re-engineered receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), essential cell surface receptors that sense growth factors and hormones, to be under the control of light.

When a signaling molecule binds to RTKs at the cell surface, two receptors bind to each other in a process called dimerization. This process activates signaling in the cell. Janovjak, Grusch and colleagues linked those parts of mammalian RTKs that activate cell signaling to a light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domain, a reversible light sensor that they identified in a yellow-green alga. In the engineered receptors, the dimerization step and subsequently cell signaling can now be turned on and off by light as the algal proteins sense light and bind to each other. In cancer cells, activation of the engineered receptors causes changes in cell morphology, proliferation and gene expression, characteristic of increased cancer malignancy. In blood cells, activation leads to cell sprouting, typical of the formation of new blood vessels.

The development of RTKs regulated through light-activated dimerization by Janovjak and Grusch is the first instance of light-activated dimerization of mammalian receptors. The engineered receptors can be precisely controlled by a light intensity easily achieved in microscopes and in animal models. The newly developed receptors trigger complex cellular programs in both cancer and blood endothelial cells. These cells represent new models in which behavior is under light control and which can, for instance, be used for new methods to identify drugs. In contrast to cancer, where uncontrolled activation of cell signaling results in features linked to malignancy, light activation of signaling may rescue cell survival and function in degenerative disease.


'/>"/>

Contact: Oliver Lehmann
oliver.lehmann@ist.ac.at
43-067-640-12562
Institute of Science and Technology Austria
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Cancer risk: Aspirin and smoking affect aging of genes
2. EORTC presents European solution for effective cancer drug development
3. New approach identifies cancer mutations as targets of effective melanoma immunotherapy
4. Case Western Reserve, University Hospitals fundraising for adolescent, young adult cancer
5. Improved survival with TAS-102 in mets colorectal cancer refractory to standard therapies
6. Some aggressive cancers may respond to anti-inflammatory drugs
7. Colon cancer survivors are more likely to have pain in the back and abdomen
8. Genetics dominant risk factor in common cancers
9. New test predicts the risk of non-hereditary breast cancer
10. Researchers conduct comprehensive review of treatments for depression in cancer patients
11. Scientists find potential new use for cancer drug in gene therapy for blood disorders
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Enlightening cancer cells
(Date:3/23/2017)... ... March 23, 2017 , ... Altec ... The Resource Group as their 2016 Microsoft Dynamics Partner of the Year at ... CA. The award recognizes The Resource Group for their outstanding relationship with ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... ... 23, 2017 , ... Sharon Kleyne, host of the nationally syndicated radio program, ... VoiceAmerica, recently talked on her program about how she is looking forward to World ... of an important distinction. World Water Day, Kleyne pointed out, is an occasion for ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... ... March 23, 2017 , ... It’s that time of year ... are thinking about summer internships , which can be frustrating when they don’t ... at Garden Media Group, a boutique public relations firm outside of Philadelphia, have offered ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... Richey, FL (PRWEB) , ... March 23, 2017 , ... ... announce that 2017 marks the 40th Anniversary of ABQAURP’s dedication to Health Care Quality ... honors those who have contributed not only to the association, but also to the ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... ... 23, 2017 , ... On 2 March 2017, the United ... Operations Command’s Patriot Award. The award was presented by the USSOCOM Commander, General ... for its significant and enduring support to the command. , Accepting the ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:3/23/2017)... , March 23, 2017 A ... preparation market is expected to reach USD 7.2 billion by ... 7.1%. Sample preparation is a procedure in which a sample ... step in most analytical procedures since the methods are often ... is one of the most shared procedures in the lab. ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... 2017 CENTRO DE IMAGEM DIAGNOSTICOS S.A. (" ... of Law 6,404/76 and Instruction 358/02 of the Brazilian ... and the market in general that it entered yesterday, ... Diagnosticos por Imagem Ltda. (" CDI "), into an ... ASSOCIADOS LTDA. (" Partnership " and " Acquisition "). ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... -- Newborns are highly vulnerable to infections and ... young immune systems typically mount weak antibody responses. ... strong vaccine responses in newborn animals, including monkeys ... — by adding compounds known as adjuvants that ... they also describe improved adjuvant formulations that could ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: