Navigation Links
Enlightening cancer cells
Date:7/1/2014

This news release is available in German.

Harald Janovjak, Assistant Professor at IST Austria, together with Michael Grusch, Associate Professor at the Institute of Cancer Research of the Medical University of Vienna, "remote-controlled" the behaviour of cancer cells with light, as reported this week in EMBO Journal (DOI: 10.15252/embj.201387695). This work is the first application of the new field of optogenetics to cancer research.

To understand the dynamics of cellular signaling, researchers need to activate and inactivate membrane receptor proteins, which serve as relays between a cell's outside and inside world. Ideally, this activation occurs on short timescales (seconds to minutes) and in targeted locations (micrometers to millimeters). However, such a high level of precision in activation cannot be achieved with current pharmacological and genetic methods. Optogenetics uses light to control cell activity, and has the advantage that light can be applied and removed precisely both in space and time. Janovjak, Grusch and colleagues re-engineered receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), essential cell surface receptors that sense growth factors and hormones, to be under the control of light.

When a signaling molecule binds to RTKs at the cell surface, two receptors bind to each other in a process called dimerization. This process activates signaling in the cell. Janovjak, Grusch and colleagues linked those parts of mammalian RTKs that activate cell signaling to a light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domain, a reversible light sensor that they identified in a yellow-green alga. In the engineered receptors, the dimerization step and subsequently cell signaling can now be turned on and off by light as the algal proteins sense light and bind to each other. In cancer cells, activation of the engineered receptors causes changes in cell morphology, proliferation and gene expression, characteristic of increased cancer malignancy. In blood cells, activation leads to cell sprouting, typical of the formation of new blood vessels.

The development of RTKs regulated through light-activated dimerization by Janovjak and Grusch is the first instance of light-activated dimerization of mammalian receptors. The engineered receptors can be precisely controlled by a light intensity easily achieved in microscopes and in animal models. The newly developed receptors trigger complex cellular programs in both cancer and blood endothelial cells. These cells represent new models in which behavior is under light control and which can, for instance, be used for new methods to identify drugs. In contrast to cancer, where uncontrolled activation of cell signaling results in features linked to malignancy, light activation of signaling may rescue cell survival and function in degenerative disease.


'/>"/>

Contact: Oliver Lehmann
oliver.lehmann@ist.ac.at
43-067-640-12562
Institute of Science and Technology Austria
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Cancer risk: Aspirin and smoking affect aging of genes
2. EORTC presents European solution for effective cancer drug development
3. New approach identifies cancer mutations as targets of effective melanoma immunotherapy
4. Case Western Reserve, University Hospitals fundraising for adolescent, young adult cancer
5. Improved survival with TAS-102 in mets colorectal cancer refractory to standard therapies
6. Some aggressive cancers may respond to anti-inflammatory drugs
7. Colon cancer survivors are more likely to have pain in the back and abdomen
8. Genetics dominant risk factor in common cancers
9. New test predicts the risk of non-hereditary breast cancer
10. Researchers conduct comprehensive review of treatments for depression in cancer patients
11. Scientists find potential new use for cancer drug in gene therapy for blood disorders
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Enlightening cancer cells
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... “The Journey: From the Mountains to ... to save lost souls in the Philippines. “The Journey: From the Mountains to the ... teacher of the Bible. She has taught all ages and currently teaches a class ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... October 12, 2017 , ... Planet Fitness, ... the U.S., announced today its plans to open a flagship location in Covington, LA ... the former Rooms To Go store next to Office Depot in the Holiday Square ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... Asante, a ... health care, have expanded their existing home health joint venture through an agreement, ... been operating a joint venture home health company with Asante, delivering clinically integrated ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... Leading pediatric oncology experts at Children’s ... the 49th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) Oct. ... Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders at Children’s National, and Stephen P. Hunger, ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... In the United States, single-family ... some states—like New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Texas, Virginia, Connecticut, and California—the average ... extremely low property-tax rates, which contributes to the relatively lower cost of living ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/10/2017)... Oct. 10, 2017  NDS received FDA 510(k) clearance in May ... battery-powered display stand specifically designed for endoscopy environments. An innovative secondary ... a clinical solution to support the improvement of patient outcomes, procedural ... ... ...
(Date:10/4/2017)... South Korea , Oct. 4, 2017  South ... its next-generation CPR training aide "cprCUBE" on Kickstarter. The ... chest compression during cardiac arrests with better efficiency compared ... It also offers real-time feedback on efficacy of the ... The crowdfunding campaign has a goal to raise $5,000. ...
(Date:10/2/2017)... 2, 2017  Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: ... the third quarter of 2017 on Tuesday, October 24, ... that day with the investment community and media to ... conference call will begin at 9 a.m. Eastern time. ... live webcast of the conference call through a link ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: