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Endometrial and acute myeloid leukemia cancer genomes characterized
Date:5/1/2013

elations between histology and genomic data may not have been observed or potential clinical outcomes identified."

With a complete analysis of the study's findings, investigators have identified four novel genomic-based subtypes of endometrial cancer, which may set the stage for new diagnostic and treatment approaches. Each of the four genomic subtypes clustered together and was named for one of its notable characteristics:

The POLE ultramutated group was named for its unusually high mutation rates and hotspot mutations (sequences highly susceptible to mutation) in the POLE gene. The hypermutated microsatellite instability group exhibited a high mutation rate, as well as few copy number alterations, but did not carry mutations in the POLE gene. The copy number low group showed the greatest microsatellite stability but a high frequency of mutations in CTNNB1, a gene critical for maintaining the linings of organs, such as the endometrium. The copy number high subtype was composed of mostly serous tumors, but included some endometrioid samples. This subtype displayed copy number alterations and a mutation landscape that was characteristic of serous tumors.

Endometrial cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the United States. NCI estimates that close to 50,000 women will be diagnosed with endometrial cancer in 2013, with more than an estimated 8,000 deaths from the disease. For a majority of patients diagnosed with aggressive, high grade tumors with metastases, the five-year survival rate is about 16 percent, though chemotherapy has been associated with an improvement in survival, and new targeted agents are being tested.

"Finding genomic similarities among types of breast, ovarian, endometrial and colorectal tumors once again reveals that cancer, although very complex, may have themes extending beyond tissue type that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit," said Eric D. Green, M.
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Contact: NCI Press Office
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NIH/National Cancer Institute
Source:Eurekalert

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