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Endometrial and acute myeloid leukemia cancer genomes characterized
Date:5/1/2013

ch, and also in the context of clinical trials," said Douglas A. Levine, M.D., head of the Gynecology Research Laboratory at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and a co-leader in the study.

According to the authors, the new findings provide a roadmap for future clinical trials for endometrial cancer. "Each tumor subtype might warrant dedicated clinical trials because of the marked genomic differences between them that are indicative of different drivers of cancer," said study co-leader Elaine Mardis, Ph.D., co-director of the Genome Institute at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis. "Developing therapies for each subtype independent of the other may improve outcomes, as has been shown in breast cancer."

Investigators also found genomic similarities between endometrial cancers and other tumor types. Previous TCGA research showed that a form of ovarian cancer (high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma) and a subtype of breast cancer (basal-like breast cancer) share many genomic features. In this study, the scientists found that endometrial serous carcinoma also has some of these same genomic characteristics. The cancers share a high frequency of mutations in TP53 (between 84 and 96 percent) and a low frequency in PTEN, with only 1 to 2 percent mutated. Surprisingly, the researchers also found many shared characteristics between endometrioid tumors and colorectal tumors. Both cancer types demonstrate a high frequency of microsatellite instability, where the repair mechanism for DNA is broken, and mutations in POLE, a gene responsible for producing a protein involved in DNA replication and repair. These genomic changes led to high mutation rates in both tumor types.

"TCGA's multidimensional approach to collecting genomic data, including clinical and pathology information, have made these findings possible," said Harold Varmus, M.D., NCI director. "Without the integrated characterization of so many tumor samples, corr
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Contact: NCI Press Office
ncipressofficers@mail.nih.gov
301-496-6641
NIH/National Cancer Institute
Source:Eurekalert

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