Distinguishing between different types of endometrial cancers is currently based on histology, an examination of a thin slice of tissue under a microscope. But categorizing endometrial cancer tissues is often difficult, and specialists frequently disagree on the classification of individual cases.
In this study, investigators showed that approximately 25 percent of tumors that pathologists classified as high-grade endometrioid showed frequent mutations in TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, as well as extensive copy number alterations, a term for when a cell has too many or too few copies of a genomic segment. Both are key molecular characteristics associated with serous tumors, along with a small number of DNA methylation changes, which are additions of a basic chemical unit to pieces of DNA. Most endometrioid tumors, by contrast, have few copy number alterations or mutations in TP53, though there are frequent mutations in other well known cancer-associated genes, including PTEN, another tumor suppressor gene, and KRAS, a gene involved in regulating cell division.
These data suggest that some high grade endometrioid tumors have developed a strikingly similar pattern of alterations to serous tumors, and may benefit from a similar course of treatment.
"This study highlights the fact that some tumors with the same characterization by pathologists may have very different molecular features. That's where these findings will be directly implemented in additional resear
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NIH/National Cancer Institute