Two studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program reveal details about the genomic landscapes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and endometrial cancer. Both provide new insights into the molecular underpinnings of these cancers with the potential to improve treatment. These studies represent the sixth and seventh in a series of genomes of at least 20 major cancers.
The first study is on endometrial cancer:
Study establishes basis for genomic classification of endometrial cancers; proper categorization is important for choosing the best treatment
A comprehensive genomic analysis of nearly 400 endometrial tumors suggests that certain molecular characteristics such as the frequency of mutations could complement current pathology methods and help distinguish between principal types of endometrial tumors, as well as provide insights into potential treatment strategies. In addition, the study, led by investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network, revealed four novel tumor subtypes, while also identifying genomic similarities between endometrial and other types of cancers, including breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancers.
These findings represent the most comprehensive characterization of the molecular alterations in endometrial cancers available to date. They were published May 2, 2013, in the journal Nature. TCGA is funded and managed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), both part of the National Institutes of Health.
"With this latest study in a series of 20 planned TCGA tumor type characterizations, more genomic similarities are emerging between disparate tumor types," said NIH Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. "Teasing out heretofore unknown genomic markers or mutations in various cancers is again proving the value of TCGA."
Clinically, endometrial cancers fall into two categories: endometrioid (type I
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NIH/National Cancer Institute