Navigation Links
Does cooperation require both reciprocity and alike neighbors?
Date:6/8/2012

This press release is available in German.

Evolution by definition is cold and merciless: it selects for success and weeds out failure. It seems only natural to expect that such a process would simply favour genes that help themselves and not others. Yet cooperative behaviour can be observed in many areas, and humans helping each other are a common phenomenon. Thus, one of the major questions in science today is how cooperative behaviour could evolve. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Pln, Harvard University, and the University of Amsterdam have now developed a new model combining two possible explanations - direct reciprocity and population structure - and found that both repetition and structured population are essential for the evolution of cooperation. The researchers conclude that human societies can best achieve high levels of cooperative behaviour if their individuals interact repeatedly, and if populations exhibit at least a minor degree of structure.

The scientists addressed the question how cooperative behaviour could evolve using a game called the prisoner's dilemma, which considers two types of players: co-operators who pay a cost to help others; and defectors who avoid paying the cost, while reaping benefits from the co-operators they interact with. In general, everyone would be better off if they had engaged in cooperation, but from the point of view of the individual, defection is more beneficial. Selection will therefore always favour the defectors, and not cooperation. Researchers have used population structure and direct reciprocity to explain why cooperation has nevertheless evolved. In structured populations, co-operators are more likely to interact with other co-operators and defectors with defectors. Direct reciprocity involves the repetition of interaction and is therefore based on experiences gained from prior events involving cooperation. In the past, both approaches have been regarded separately.

Using computer simulations and mathematical models, a group of scientists around Julian Garcia from the Max-Planck Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Pln have developed a new model that is taking both concepts into account. They discovered that direct reciprocity alone is not enough, and that population structure is necessary in order to reach a high level of cooperation. When there is some reciprocity, the average level of cooperation increases because alike types are more likely to interact with each other. Additionally, the researchers observed that cooperation occurs if cooperative and defective individuals are highly clustered and repetition is rare. And surprisingly, too much repetition can even harm cooperation in cases when the population structure makes cooperation between individuals very likely. This is due to the fact that reciprocity can protect defectors from invasion by defectors in a similar manner that it prevents cooperation from being invaded by defectors.

"Without population structure, cooperation based on repetition is unstable", Garcia explains one of the main findings. This is especially true for humans, where repetition occurs regularly and who live in fluid, but not totally unstructured populations. A pinch of population structure helps a lot if repetition is present. "Therefore, the recipe for human cooperation might be: a bit of structure and a lot of repetition", says Julian Garcia. This phenomenon results in a high average level of cooperation.


'/>"/>
Contact: Dr. Julian Garcia
garcia@evolbio.mpg.de
49-452-276-3224
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Brave New World of Genetics Requires Safeguards, Experts Say
2. Breast stem-cell research: Receptor teamwork is required and a new pathway may be involved
3. Cancer may require simpler genetic mutations than previously thought
4. Study: More Pre-Teens Get Vaccines When Middle Schools Require Them
5. Simple assault and ground level fall do not require cervical spine CT
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:1/17/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Anesthesia Progress – Everyone wants less pain during ... option for each patient. Dentists have several general anesthesia alternatives and finding the right ... the Tokyo Dental College in Tokyo, Japan wanted to find out which anesthetic was ...
(Date:1/17/2017)... ... January 17, 2017 , ... ... Healthful-Flex. , The company, owned and operated by Ed Stroup, was created ... reasonable price with the highest level of customer service. Healthful Balance products can ...
(Date:1/17/2017)... Clemente, CA (PRWEB) , ... January 17, 2017 ... ... Diego County, as well as Palm Desert, is opening a new office in ... Brainsway deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) in Southern California, successfully treating individuals struggling ...
(Date:1/17/2017)... ... 2017 , ... A prescription medication bottle, pocket knife, luggage and a solar-powered ... Product Design Challenge , the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute has ... scheduled to run through early 2018. The challenges are presented by the Institute in ...
(Date:1/17/2017)... CA (PRWEB) , ... January 17, 2017 , ... Livionex, ... the results of a double blind clinical study for its dental gel that shows ... leading national brand of toothpaste containing triclosan. The study was conducted at the Beckman ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:1/17/2017)... 17, 2017  Zimmer Biomet Holdings, Inc. (NYSE and ... today announced that it has implemented a ... the Zimmer Biomet management team. Effective January 23, ... the position of President, Americas and join the ... served as Zimmer Biomet,s Vice President of U.S. ...
(Date:1/17/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the ... ... laparotomy sponges market to grow at a CAGR of 7.94% during ... 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with ... its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes ...
(Date:1/17/2017)... BELLEFONTE, Pa. , Jan. 17, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... Medical, Inc.(AMI) announces the addition of 6 senior ... of the TubeClear® System.  These sales leaders were ... recently acquired medical device company. Repeatedly recognized for ... of exceeding customer expectations and establishing relationships with ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: