Depressive symptoms were measured with an eight-item subset of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, which asks participants to report how often they've experienced various situations or feelings in the past week. Possible answers range from "0," which means rarely or none of the time, to "3," which is most or all of the time. Higher scores for the eight items indicate more frequent depressive symptoms.
The researchers controlled for parental wellbeing prior to the death of a child and analyzed the data in two stages. First, they tested the extent to which a child's death affected a parent's health and then whether that varied by the parent's sex. Finally, they determined the influence of a deceased child's sex on parental wellbeing.
They found that women who lost a son scored, on average, 2.4 points higher on levels of depressive symptoms than those who did not lose a child. For men, there were no significant differences. There was no evidence to suggest that either mothers or fathers were significantly affected by depressive symptoms or declines in reports of overall health following the death of a daughter. Lee explains that while finances are a concern, there may be other factors at play.
"I also think that various attributes of deceased children, such as birth order, affective bonds with their parents or cause of death, might influence parental wellbeing," said Lee, who is a native of Korea and observed son preference and gender inequality throughout her childhood.
According to Goldman, these findings underscore the continued gender inequality in Taiwan.
"Despite large advan
|Contact: B. Rose Huber|
Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs