Navigation Links
DNA packaging discovery reveals principles by which CRC mutations may cause cancer
Date:11/16/2012

SALT LAKE CITYA new discovery from researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah concerning a fundamental understanding about how DNA works will produce a "180-degree change in focus" for researchers who study how gene packaging regulates gene activity, including genes that cause cancer and other diseases. The discovery, by Bradley R. Cairns, PhD, Senior Director of Basic Science at HCI and a professor in the Department of Oncological Sciences, is reported in this week's online issue of the journal Nature.

Cairns's research focuses on chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs), which are cellular protein complexes that behave like motors, expanding or compacting different portions of DNA to either express or silence genes, respectively. Before, scientists thought that the motor within CRCs waits at rest until it receives instructions. Cairns and co-author Cedric R. Clapier show that the motor within a key CRC responsible for gene packaging and assembly is intrinsically turned on, and instead requires specific instructions to turn it off.

"Many articles in the research literature show that CRCs are mutated in cancer cells. They are intimately involved in regulating gene expressionresponsible for correctly packaging genes that control growth proliferation and for unpackaging tumor suppressors," said Cairns. "This research reveals principles by which CRC mutations could cause cancer."

Chromosomes are made of long DNA strands compressed around nodes of protein called nucleosomes; when DNA is compressed, the genes in that area are turned off. Some CRCs, called disassembly CRCs, act as motors that unwind sections of DNA chains, making genes active for a given cell process. Another type, called assembly CRCs, rewinds the DNA chain, recompressing it when the process is complete. The unwind-rewind cycle is repeated continuously throughout a cell's life.

In this study, Cairns and Clapier focused on assembly CRCs. "Before this research, we thought that the motor was off unless a protein coming from another part of the cell turned it on," said Cairns. "Researchers have been searching for the switch by looking at the CRC motor to see what binds to it.

"As it turns out, we discovered that the CRC motor already carries on its flank a 'switch' that inhibits its action until a marker sequence, located on the nucleosome, is encountered. The marker flips the inhibitor switch and allows the CRC to crank the DNA chain back around the nucleosome, promoting gene packaging and silencing" Cairns said. "Our results change where future researchers should be looking to understand how CRCs are regulatednot at the CRC motor itself, but at the 'switches' that flank the motor."

The study also describes a measuring function on the CRC that checks for the correct distance between one nucleosome and the next, telling the motor to switch off at the proper time, a function needed for gene silencing.

Cairns's lab will now examine this same switching concept in disassembly remodelers. "There are additional remodeler families with alternative functions, like DNA repair," said Cairns. "We think this concept will apply to them as well."


'/>"/>

Contact: Linda Aagard
801-587-7639
University of Utah Health Sciences
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Plain packaging reduces the appeal of smoking
2. BPA in Food Packaging Tied to Child Obesity: Study
3. Scientist awarded $1 million grant to develop tools for hepatitis C treatment discovery
4. Washingtons Life Sciences Discovery Fund awards commercialization grants
5. Discovery could help to develop drugs for organ transplant and cancer patients
6. Feelings of immaturity accompany alcohol misuse into adulthood; discovery could improve treatments
7. H1N1 discovery paves way for universal flu vaccine: UBC research
8. Scientists make breakthrough in bile duct cancer with discovery of new gene mutations
9. Researchers make promising discovery in pursuit of effective lymphoma treatments
10. Discovery suggests new combination therapy strategy for basal-like breast cancers
11. Discovery of Gene May Lead to New Male Contraceptive
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:1/16/2017)... , ... January 16, 2017 , ... ... today announced the addition of Victor Giamos, MD to their medical staff, according ... Managing Partner at North Shore Eye Care, a division of SightMD. Dr. Giamos ...
(Date:1/16/2017)... ... January 16, 2017 , ... Atlanta-based incentive company ... innovator in the wheelchair accessibility industry, BraunAbility . Incentive Solutions will provide ... wheelchair accessible vehicles. With this new incentive plan, BraunAbility plans to continue their ...
(Date:1/16/2017)... ... January 16, 2017 , ... ... Aesthetic Surgery Journal , the official journal of The American Society for Aesthetic ... retraction surgery. The procedure is designed to correct drooping, retracted lower eyelids, which ...
(Date:1/16/2017)... ... January 16, 2017 , ... San Francisco dentist, Dr. Ben Amini , ... scanning device which is capable of taking digital impressions of teeth and gums. Conventional ... CAD CAM restorations , in terms of speed, efficiency and patient comfort. Increasingly, ...
(Date:1/15/2017)... York, NY (PRWEB) , ... January 15, 2017 , ... ... strategic accounts in the United States for the asthma & allergy friendly mark. This ... America to independently test and identify consumer products to be more suitable for the ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:1/16/2017)... Jan. 16, 2017  Today, Analytics 4 Life (A4L), ... announced its expansion into JLABS @ Toronto ... science incubators. As a resident in the space, A4L ... device development and commercialization expertise. JLABS @ ... innovation center that provides a flexible environment for start-up ...
(Date:1/15/2017)... , January 16, 2017 Le conseil ... à base de collagène pour la régénération de tissus humains, ... poste de directeur général avec effet immédiat. ... Bill est un dirigeant ... occupé plusieurs postes de gestion générale et de direction au ...
(Date:1/13/2017)... Stock-Callers is currently reviewing the following Medical Appliances ... WMGI ), Varian Medical Systems Inc. (NYSE: VAR ... NuVasive Inc. (NASDAQ: NUVA ). These companies belong ... finish on Thursday, January 12 th , 2017, with the ... health care companies in the S&P 500 were down less ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: