Navigation Links
Control gene for 'conveyor belt' cells could help improve oral vaccines, treat intestinal disease
Date:6/17/2012

Scientists have found a master regulator gene needed for the development of M cells, a mysterious type of intestinal cell involved in initiating immune responses.

M cells act like "conveyor belts," ingesting bacteria and transporting substances from the gut into Peyer's patches, specialized tissues resembling lymph nodes in the intestines. Better knowledge of M cells' properties could aid research on oral vaccines and inflammatory bowel diseases.

A team of researchers at Emory University School of Medicine and RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology in Japan has identified the gene Spi-B as responsible for the differentiation of M cells.

The results are published Sunday, June 17 in the journal Nature Immunology.

"This discovery could really unlock a lot of information about the sequence of events needed for M cells to develop and what makes them distinctive," says co-author Ifor Williams, MD, PhD, associate professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at Emory University School of Medicine. "M cells have been difficult to study because they are relatively rare, they are only found within the Peyer's patches and can't be grown in isolation."

Scientists at RIKEN, led by senior author Hiroshi Ohno, MD, PhD, teamed up with Williams' laboratory, taking advantage of a discovery by Williams that a protein called RANKL, which is produced by cells in Peyer's patches, can induce M cell differentiation. Research scientist Takashi Kanaya is first author of the paper.

Kanaya and colleagues found that the gene Spi-B is turned on strongly at early stages of M cell differentiation induced by RANKL. Their suspicion of Spi-B's critical role was confirmed when they discovered that mice lacking Spi-B do not have functional M cells, and the cells in the intestines lack several other markers usually found on M cells.

"It was somewhat surprising to find Spi-B expressed in intestinal epithelial cells," Williams says. "Because Spi-B is known to be important for the development of some types of immune cells, it was thought to be expressed only in bone marrow-derived cells."

In fact, the M cells in Spi-B deficient mice can't be restored by a transplant of normal bone marrow, the researchers found. That means Spi-B has to be active in intestinal epithelial cells (not immune cells) for M cells to develop.

Williams says information about M cells in particular, what molecules they have on their surfaces could be useful for targeting oral vaccines. Most vaccines in use today are administered by injection. But immunologists believe that in some cases, it may be better to deliver vaccines through the mouth or nose, thus strengthening the body's defenses where an infection starts.

Because M cells are involved in the uptake of bacteria, the study of M cells could also guide development of treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases, in which immune responses to intestinal bacteria appear to become dysregulated.


'/>"/>
Contact: Quinn Eastman
qeastma@emory.edu
404-727-7829
Emory University
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Control of disease activity and biologic treatment increase life expectency in RA patients
2. Exercise Controls Weight in White Girls Better Than in Black Girls: Study
3. Tight Blood-Sugar Control Shows Mixed Results for Health of Kidneys: Study
4. Aggressively controlling glucose levels may not reduce kidney failure in Type 2 diabetes
5. Birth Control Pills, HRT Tied to Digestive Ills
6. Lenalidomide prolongs disease control for multiple myeloma patients after stem cell transplant
7. Novel drug candidates offer new route to controlling inflammation
8. Sooner Is Better for Controlling Obese Kids Weight: Study
9. MSU plan would control deadly tsetse fly
10. Control of gene expression: Histone occupancy in your genome
11. Guidelines say diet, exercise, weight control improve odds after cancer diagnosis
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... The temporary closing of Bruton Memorial Library on June ... , brings up a new, often overlooked aspect of head lice: the parasite’s ability to ... is not a common occurrence, but a necessary one in the event that lice have ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... ... On Friday, June 10, Van Mitchell, Secretary of the Maryland Department of Health ... of their exemplary accomplishments in worksite health promotion. , The Wellness at Work Awards ... at the BWI Marriott in Linthicum Heights. iHire was one of 42 businesses to ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... a crisis. Her son James, eight, was out of control. Prone to extreme mood shifts ... upset him, he couldn’t control his emotions,” remembers Marcy. “If there was a knife ... and say he was going to kill them. If we were driving on the ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... BioMedics, Inc, makers of Topricin and MyPainAway Pain Relief Products, join The ‘Business for a ... an hour by 2020 and then adjusting it yearly to increase at the same rate ... assure the wage floor does not erode again, and make future increases more predictable. , ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... 24, 2016 , ... Strategic Capital Partners, LLC (SCP) in ... investment capital for emerging technology companies. SCP has delivered investment events and ... more than a million dollars of capital investment for five companies. ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... 2016  Collagen Matrix, Inc., ("Collagen Matrix") the ... of collagen and mineral based medical devices for ... Bill Messer has joined the company as ... the growing portfolio of oral surgery, neurosurgery, orthopaedic ... joins the Collagen Matrix executive team as an ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Mass. , June 24, 2016   ... Spaulding Rehabilitation Network,s Dean Center for Tick ... Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, MIT Hacking Medicine, University ... for Innovation, today announced the five finalists of ... for Lyme disease.  More than 100 scientists, clinicians, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... -- Research and Markets has announced ... Applications, Technologies, Forecasts" report to their offering. ... Smart Skin, Structural Health Monitoring, Composite Smart Structures, ... involves electronic and/or electrical components and circuits that ... such as vehicle bodies or conformally placed upon ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: