Navigation Links
Control gene for 'conveyor belt' cells could help improve oral vaccines, treat intestinal disease
Date:6/17/2012

Scientists have found a master regulator gene needed for the development of M cells, a mysterious type of intestinal cell involved in initiating immune responses.

M cells act like "conveyor belts," ingesting bacteria and transporting substances from the gut into Peyer's patches, specialized tissues resembling lymph nodes in the intestines. Better knowledge of M cells' properties could aid research on oral vaccines and inflammatory bowel diseases.

A team of researchers at Emory University School of Medicine and RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology in Japan has identified the gene Spi-B as responsible for the differentiation of M cells.

The results are published Sunday, June 17 in the journal Nature Immunology.

"This discovery could really unlock a lot of information about the sequence of events needed for M cells to develop and what makes them distinctive," says co-author Ifor Williams, MD, PhD, associate professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at Emory University School of Medicine. "M cells have been difficult to study because they are relatively rare, they are only found within the Peyer's patches and can't be grown in isolation."

Scientists at RIKEN, led by senior author Hiroshi Ohno, MD, PhD, teamed up with Williams' laboratory, taking advantage of a discovery by Williams that a protein called RANKL, which is produced by cells in Peyer's patches, can induce M cell differentiation. Research scientist Takashi Kanaya is first author of the paper.

Kanaya and colleagues found that the gene Spi-B is turned on strongly at early stages of M cell differentiation induced by RANKL. Their suspicion of Spi-B's critical role was confirmed when they discovered that mice lacking Spi-B do not have functional M cells, and the cells in the intestines lack several other markers usually found on M cells.

"It was somewhat surprising to find Spi-B expressed in intestinal epithelial cells," Williams says. "Because Spi-B is known to be important for the development of some types of immune cells, it was thought to be expressed only in bone marrow-derived cells."

In fact, the M cells in Spi-B deficient mice can't be restored by a transplant of normal bone marrow, the researchers found. That means Spi-B has to be active in intestinal epithelial cells (not immune cells) for M cells to develop.

Williams says information about M cells in particular, what molecules they have on their surfaces could be useful for targeting oral vaccines. Most vaccines in use today are administered by injection. But immunologists believe that in some cases, it may be better to deliver vaccines through the mouth or nose, thus strengthening the body's defenses where an infection starts.

Because M cells are involved in the uptake of bacteria, the study of M cells could also guide development of treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases, in which immune responses to intestinal bacteria appear to become dysregulated.


'/>"/>
Contact: Quinn Eastman
qeastma@emory.edu
404-727-7829
Emory University
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Control of disease activity and biologic treatment increase life expectency in RA patients
2. Exercise Controls Weight in White Girls Better Than in Black Girls: Study
3. Tight Blood-Sugar Control Shows Mixed Results for Health of Kidneys: Study
4. Aggressively controlling glucose levels may not reduce kidney failure in Type 2 diabetes
5. Birth Control Pills, HRT Tied to Digestive Ills
6. Lenalidomide prolongs disease control for multiple myeloma patients after stem cell transplant
7. Novel drug candidates offer new route to controlling inflammation
8. Sooner Is Better for Controlling Obese Kids Weight: Study
9. MSU plan would control deadly tsetse fly
10. Control of gene expression: Histone occupancy in your genome
11. Guidelines say diet, exercise, weight control improve odds after cancer diagnosis
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/28/2017)... , ... April 28, 2017 , ... ... expanded distribution of the GlycoMark test throughout the Northeast U.S. , GlycoMark ... patients with diabetes. The GlycoMark test provides a clinically proven one- to two-week ...
(Date:4/28/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Children and adolescents who enter the foster ... in the general population. That’s because foster care is designed to protect children ... no fault of their own, youth who have experienced trauma often have difficulty ...
(Date:4/28/2017)... ... April 28, 2017 , ... Bill Howe started his sewer and drain company ... Tina Howe joined the team, the Bill Howe brand was born and they began ... and giving back to the San Diego community in which they worked, lived and ...
(Date:4/28/2017)... ... April 28, 2017 , ... Woolsy Corporation ... supplements, through its Nova Skin Sciences division, recently announced the launch of Allumière ... with the power of an anti-aging concentrate. , Anogeissus Leiocarpa Bark ...
(Date:4/27/2017)... ... April 27, 2017 , ... ... respiratory hospital, based in Denver, Colorado, announced an agreement to create the Jane ... continuing support of the Jane and Leonard Korman Family Foundation. The collaboration leverages ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:4/19/2017)... , Tenn. and DALLAS , April 19, ... Inc., announced that the first patients in ... EndoStim device in the Lower Esophageal Sphincter Stimulation for ... minimally-invasive implantable device designed to provide long-term reflux control ... GERD affects nearly 65 million people in ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... 19, 2017 Companion ... response in pets such as canine, avian and ... various types such as Attenuated Live Vaccines, Conjugate ... Vaccines and Recombinant Vaccines. Attenuated live vaccines are ... bacteria, which have been weakend under laboratory conditions. ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... , April 19, 2017  SARES•REGIS Group leased ... is developing at Conejo Spectrum Business Park in ... Atara Biotherapeutics, Inc. , a biopharmaceutical company ... life-threatening diseases that have been underserved by scientific ... therapies for cancer, autoimmune and infectious disease. ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: