Navigation Links
Continuing racial differences in HIV prevalence in US
Date:10/6/2009

HIV prevalence among African Americans is ten times greater than the prevalence among whites. This racial disparity in HIV prevalence has persisted in the face of both governmental and private actions, involving many billions of dollars, to combat HIV. In the November 2009 issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill examine factors responsible for the stark racial disparities in HIV infection in the U.S. and the now concentrated epidemic among African Americans.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 45% of new HIV infections in the U.S. in 2006 occurred among non-Hispanic blacks. Among the 13,184 adolescents and young adults in The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative study, HIV seroprevalence was almost 0.5% among blacks 20 times that of whites.

While individual-level sexual behaviors can contribute to the disparity in HIV prevalence, these observed differences in individual behaviors do not fully explain the marked racial differences in HIV infection prevalence. Even when comparisons are stratified by education, poverty index, marital status, age at first sexual intercourse, lifetime number of sex partners, history of male homosexual activity, illicit drug use, injection drug use, and HSV-2 antibody positivity, HIV prevalence among African Americans exceeds that of whites, typically substantially.

The authors suggest a number of social factors that may contribute to the difference in infection rates. Because of racially segregated mixing patterns and the much higher HIV seroprevalence in African Americans, exposure to the virus is more likely among blacks than among whites for any given number of partners or frequency of sexual contacts. The prevalence of concurrent sexual partnerships (relationships that overlap in time) is higher among U.S. blacks than whites and this can spread infection through a sexual network faster than the same number of new, sequential relationships. Poverty, a reality of life for a disproportionately large number of African Americans, is strongly associated with HIV infection. The population gender ratio (number of men:women) is a major determinant of the structure of sexual networks and both high male mortality and disproportionate incarceration of black men reduce the gender ratio among African Americans. This likely influences not only marriage rates, but also participation in sexual risk behaviors and sexual mixing and other network patterns.

According to the authors, the overall impact of these factors constitutes structural violence; a social system characterized by inequalities in power and life chances of sufficient magnitude to restrict a group of people from realizing their full potential and put them "in harm's way." Although the link between social context and disease is increasingly recognized, with a few notable exceptions, the specific role of structural violence in the HIV epidemic among African Americans has received considerably less research attention.

Writing in the article, Adaora A. Adimora, MD, MPH, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, states, "Continuing racial disparities in HIV infection more than 2 decades after the identification of the virus and availability of an accurate test are an indictment of the U.S. response to the epidemic. Existing interventions have failed to control the epidemic in African Americans in part because critical features of the socioeconomic context promote behaviors that transmit HIV and increase the risk of HIV infection even among those who do not have high-risk behaviors. Failure to address these structural determinants has allowed the epidemic to continue in the black community. There is a need for research and interventions that are informed by expertise in public health, medicine, basic science, and social sciences along with expertise in economics, business and finance, education, criminal justice, political science, and other disciplinesGovernments should be held accountable for progress or lack thereof in eliminating inequities."


'/>"/>

Contact: AJPM Editorial Office
eAJPM@ucsd.edu
858-457-7292
Elsevier Health Sciences
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. MedPage Today(R) Continuing Medical Education Activities Now Offer AAPA Credit for Physician Assistants
2. Pfizer Closes La Jolla Campus Due to Continuing Fire Emergency
3. Diana Hatsis of Chiltern Will Present at the Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology (JCAHPO) 35th Annual Continuing Education Program Held in Conjunction With the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Annual Meeting
4. Dragon Achieved Solid Increase in Sales and Profits from Continuing Operations for Q3
5. Construction Begins on Los Angeles First New Continuing Care Retirement Community Facility in Over a Decade
6. HCLA Commends President Bushs Strong and Continuing Commitment to Medical Liability Reform
7. Otter Tail Corporation Reports Record Revenues and Net Income From Continuing Operations for 2007; Earnings Per Share of $1.78; Board Approves Dividend Increase
8. TeamStaff Reports First Quarter Net Income and $0.7 Million Income Improvement From Continuing Operations Over Prior Year
9. Milady U Provides Continuing Education to Salon and Spa Professionals
10. PhRMA Applauds House Committee on Foreign Affairs Commitment to Continuing Efforts to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Epidemics
11. In Face of Continuing Katrina and Rita Needs Red Cross Adds Resources to Gulf Coast
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Global law firm Greenberg Traurig, P.A. ... The attorneys chosen by their peers for this recognition are considered among the top ... Shareholders received special honors as members of this year’s Legal Elite Hall of Fame: ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Diego, CA (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... with the American Cancer Society and the Road To Recovery® program to drive cancer ... to seniors and other adults to ensure the highest quality of life and ongoing ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... 24, 2016 , ... People across the U.S. are sharpening their pencils and ... essay contest in which patients and their families pay tribute to a genetic counselor ... National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Annual Education Conference (AEC) this September. , ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... is proud to recognize Dr. Barry M. Weintraub as a prominent plastic surgeon ... beautiful women in the world, and the most handsome men, look naturally attractive. ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Maryland (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... Angels is actively feeding the Frederick area economy by obtaining investment capital for ... over the past 2½ years that have already resulted in more than a ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)...   Pulmatrix, Inc ., (NASDAQ: PULM ... announced today that it was added to the Russell ... comprehensive set of U.S. and global equity indexes on ... milestone for Pulmatrix," said Chief Executive Officer Robert ... progress in developing drugs for crucial unmet medical needs, ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... report to their offering. ... kidney failure, it replaces the function of kidneys by removing ... thus the treatment helps to keep the patient body,s electrolytes ... Increasing number of ESRD patients & substantial healthcare expenditure ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Roche (SIX: ... 510(k) clearance for its Elecsys BRAHMS PCT (procalcitonin) assay ... sepsis or septic shock. With this clearance, Roche is ... a fully integrated solution for sepsis risk assessment and ... with bacterial infection and PCT levels in blood can ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: