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Common molecule notifies immune system of prostate cancer
Date:1/10/2008

In experiments with mice, researchers have found that the bodys immune system can use a surprisingly common molecule to recognize prostate tumors. The molecule comes from a protein found in all cells of the body; however, immune cells appear to respond to it only when it is present on the surface of cells within a tumor.

Understanding how this protein, known as histone H4, signals the immune system to respond to malignant cells may help researchers refine immunotherapy strategies that harness the body's own immune system to fight tumors. Some types of immunotherapy are already being tested in patients, but many questions remain unanswered. In particular, researchers want to know if tumor cells display molecular signposts that tell the immune system, I'm a cancer cell, destroy me.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator James P. Allison and his team report finding one such signpost in prostate tumors in mice. The finding points toward possible improvements in immunotherapy.

We know very little about how the immune system responds to tumors, especially early tumors, said Allison, director of the Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. Is the tumor at that stage invisible, or can immune cells detect it? And if they can detect it, can they mount a response? Those are the two big questions.

Allison's research, published in the January 11, 2008, issue of Science, found that immune cells can, in fact, detect prostate cancer, at least in lab mice. However, the immune system mounts only a feeble attack against the tumor.

But the signpost Allison's team identified might make revving up that feeble response much easier.

The strategy relies on a specific type of immune system cell called a killer T cell. Each of these cells bristles with thousands of receptors that recognize molecules that do not belong in the body. When a T cell recognizes a foreign molecule
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Contact: Jennifer Michalowski
michalow@hhmi.org
301-215-8576
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Source:Eurekalert

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