New measures should therefore be as limited as possible, he argues. Norway has what it needs to guard against threats, in so far as protection from "the unthinkable" is attainable.
The terrorist attacks in the USA on 11 September 2001 were followed by a number of security measures in Norway at such locations as airports, ports and embassies. New anti-terror legislation was also adopted by the country, with increased powers extended to the police and defence forces.
"The attacks on the government buildings in Oslo and the youth camp on Utya put our emergency response to the test," Dr Kruke adds.
"With hindsight, you can naturally discuss whether the contingency plans were good enough. We must learn from these incidents. New measures must be based on a detailed analysis of the response, and not on ad-hoc action which could quickly create a false sense of security", he says.
"Very clear lines of command and systems are now in place. Within these frameworks, much improvement is naturally possible. The challenge is to get the systems to work well together."
The UiS researchers believe that the police, the police security service (PST) and the Ministry of Justice will have much to answer for in the time to come.
Recurring questions are likely to be security in the government quarter, use of resources in the PST, the police response to the Utya shootings and security at Utya Camping.
"However, nothing ever goes smoothly in a crisis," observes Prof Olsen. "That's in the nature of an emergency. But you can discuss whether the failures were serious or to be expected."
In his view, the cost of maintaining full emergency preparedness nationwide and around the clock would be exorbitantly high.
The need for security
"People naturally need t
|Contact: Ole Andreas Engen|
University of Stavanger