Navigation Links
Coming soon: Cell therapies for diabetes, cancer?
Date:3/19/2008

Tampa, Fla. (March 19 , 2008) Therapies using stem cell transplants are advancing promising treatments for such conditions as Alzheimers Disease, neurological diseases and spinal cord injury, and heart disease. Now, scientists think that stem cell transplants may ultimately benefit those who suffer from diabetes or cancer. However, important questions need answers: Given the shortage of human pancreatic islet tissue, can stem cells be used to provide insulin cells that can be stored and secreted from a bioartifical pancreas? Can islet cells be frozen for long periods of time, retain their integrity and be transplanted? If tumors contain cancer stem cells, how can the stem cells be targeted and destroyed to provide improved therapies?

To raise and help answer some of these questions, the current double issue of CELL TRANSPLANTATION (Vol.17, Nos. 1&2) is devoted to research presented at the Japan Society of Organ Preservation and Medical Biology (JSOPMB) meeting in Tokyo in November, 2006. The research within the pages of this special issue demonstrates how stem cell research in Japan is pushing towards therapies for diabetes and cancer and beyond.

According to Naoya Kobayashi, MD, PhD, of the Department of Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of medicine and Dentistry and Special Editor of the Japanese issue of CELL TRANSPLANTATION, the shortage of donor organs for transplantation is a big challenge, but research on stem cells and artificial cells for transplantation are encouraging and may provide valuable therapeutics for a host of diseases, including diabetes and cancer.

Artificial pancreas for diabetes sufferers

The construction of a safe and functional bioartifical pancreas (BAP), complete with cells that can secrete insulin in response to blood sugar concentrations, can be developed using stem cells as alternatives to normal human pancreatic islets, which are in short supply. The multipotency and active proliferation properties of stem cells, allows scientists to work on methods of inducing adult stem cells to differentiate into pancreatic cells.

We are trying to design and develop a subcutaneously implant bag-type of BAP, said Dr. Kobayashi. In tests on animal models, subcutaneously implanted BAPS have shown excellent induction of new blood vessels.

Alternative ways of circumventing the short supply of viable human pancreatic islet tissue by allowing storage of cells are also being explored.

Freezing islet cells to save them

Cryopreservation (freezing) of pancreatic islet cells from non-heart beating donors has been studied in animal models. Studies have shown that islet structure was well maintained after thawing, although the number of islets decreased. Techniques for freezing human islet cells from non-heart beating donors are being developed with an emphasis on evaluating the thawed islet morphology, possible contamination and quality of endocrine function.

Cancer stem cells: Key to a cure?

Researchers have proposed that cancer cells, like normal cells, include stem cells that are able to differentiate.

Many questions surround this proposal, observes Dr. Kobayashi. For example, do cancer stem cells exist in all cancers? Have normal stem cells become malignant, though mutation or some other process? What are the markers for cancer stem cells? Are cancer stem cells resistant to existing treatments?

Current research is aimed at not only answering these questions, but also whether reducing the number of stem cells may lead to a reduced cancer risk.

Tamoxifen, used to successfully prevent primary breast cancer, works by reducing the number of stem cells, comments Dr. Kobayashi.

Researchers speculated that if a substance specific to cancer stem cells can be discovered, cancer will be able to be detected at an earlier stage. However, even if cancer has been successfully treated, if a single cancer stem cell remains cancer, could spread and form new tumors.

Also, it appears that cancer stem cells have the ability to repair DNA damage more effectively than do cancer cells, thus adding to a tumors drug resistance. Thus, treatment strategies based on the existence of cancer stem cells - which are reported to be resistant to standard anti-cancer drugs - may take a leap forward when stem cells can be targeted.

A further question arises as to whether only cancer stem cells can be targeted without damaging normal stem cells, added Dr. Kobayashi.

Artificial cells

Although human adult stem cells are ideal for cell therapy via transplantation, keeping available cells alive over the long term is difficult.

We are making efforts to economically establish reversible immortalized human cell lines that can be grown in tissue cultures and used for future gene transfers, explained Dr. Kobayashi. Achieving immortalization, a two-stage process, is not without challenges.

According to Dr. Kobayashi, research focusing on reversible immortalization is being carried out to make safe and secure cell lines with the immortalization gene able to be removed once cell proliferation has been achieved.


'/>"/>

Contact: Naoya Kobayashi
immortal@md.okayama-u.ac.jp
81-862-357-485
Cell Transplantation Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Rigel Announces Participation in Upcoming Investor and Partnering Conferences
2. WellPoint Announces Appearances at Upcoming Conferences
3. Zimmer Holdings to Present at Upcoming Investor Conferences
4. Derma Sciences Announces Numerous Clinical Presentations on MEDIHONEY(TM) Wound & Burn Dressings at Upcoming SAWC Conference
5. Trubion Announces Presentations at Upcoming Investor Conferences
6. Upcoming Business Health Agenda 2008 Features Workscape Executive
7. Toxins in cigarette smoke prevent stem cells from becoming cartilage
8. Zounds! - Sarasota and Port Richey Hear New Retail Concept Coming
9. WallSt.net (www.WallSt.net) Announces Upcoming Interview With Chairman and CEO of flexSCAN, Inc.
10. Bradmer announces Phase II results published in newly diagnosed glioblastoma which demonstrate improved survival and support upcoming Phase III study
11. Derma Sciences Announces Several Clinical Presentations on MEDIHONEY(TM) Wound & Burn Dressings at Upcoming APWCA Conference
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... ... alumni Hannah Randall, PharmD ‘17, and Jennifer Huggins, PharmD ’17, along with ... for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases during the 15th Annual Women’s ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... New York, NY (PRWEB) , ... October 13, 2017 , ... ... most influential people in business to advocate for action towards gender equality at their ... 18,000 views from around the globe, and reached a social audience of over 3 ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... ... “The Journey: From the Mountains to the Mission Field”: the story of a ... “The Journey: From the Mountains to the Mission Field” is the creation of published ... all ages and currently teaches a class of ladies at her church, which she ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... The company has developed a ... and regulatory authorities worldwide. From Children’s to Adults 50+, every formula has been ... standard. , These products are also: Gluten Free, Non-GMO, Vegan, Soy Free, ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... Dr. Parsa Mohebi, the Los ... article to the newly revamped Cosmetic Town journal section, featuring articles ... procedure known as Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE). , Dr. Mohebi says ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/2/2017)...  Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY ... quarter of 2017 on Tuesday, October 24, 2017. Lilly ... with the investment community and media to further detail ... will begin at 9 a.m. Eastern time. Investors, media ... of the conference call through a link that will ...
(Date:9/28/2017)... 2017 Cohen Veterans Bioscience and Early Signal ... wearable and home sensors for real-time monitoring of patients ... a nonprofit organization focused on disruptive health solutions for ... analytical system to record and integrate behavioral, cognitive, physiological ... ...
(Date:9/23/2017)... -- Janssen Biotech, Inc. (Janssen) announced today that it ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the Biologics License ... of moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The ... to further evaluate the safety of sirukumab in the ... "We are disappointed by ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: