Navigation Links
Colon cancer exhibits a corresponding epigenetic pattern in mice and humans
Date:2/7/2013

This release is available in German.

Tumourigenesis is driven by genetic alterations and by changes in the epigenome, for instance by the addition of methyl groups to cytosine bases in the DNA. A deeper understanding of the interaction between the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms is critical for the selection of tumour biomarkers and for the future development of therapies. Human tumour specimens and cell lines however contain a plethora of genetic and epigenetic changes, which complicate data analysis. In contrast, certain mouse tumour models contain only a single genetic mutation and allow the analysis of nascent tumours. Scientists of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin have now discovered a recurring pattern of more than 13,000 epigenetic alterations in young tumours of the mouse. This genome-wide pattern was found to be partly conserved in human colon carcinoma, and may therefor facilitate the identification of novel clinical colon cancer biomarkers for early detection.

Two kinds of molecular changes are known to trigger tumour development: one is genetic mutations i.e. alterations in the alphabetic sequence of the DNA activating genes that lead to uncontrolled growth of tumours, or inactivating genes that inhibit this growth. The other is epigenetic modifications, for example new distributions of methyl groups in the DNA that contribute to the genetic information in the cancer cells being interpreted differently.

Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms work together in cancer development but little was known about how these systems mutually influence one another, and which changes first come to light. These questions can only be answered with great difficulty through investigating human tumours: the cancer is usually already several years old when diagnosed. Accordingly, the cancer cells already exhibit thousands of genetic and epigenetic changes at this stage, which complicates the analysis.

The matter is different for the corresponding polyps in mice, which the researchers can investigate considerably earlier following their formation. For this reason, scientists of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics have now pursued the question of which epigenetic changes in intestinal tumours occur first with the help of a mouse model.

"With mice, we can investigate the first changes much more easily than with humans", says Markus Morkel, who led the study. The scientists analysed the epigenetic changes in a strain of mice with a defective copy of the APC gene. This gene serves as an intestinal tumour suppressor in mice as well as in humans. Accordingly, it has lost its functionality in a majority of patients with colon cancer.

The results displayed a clear picture:The researchers recognised a recurring pattern of more than 13,000 epigenetic changes in all of the mouse tumour samples. By contrast, they did not find this pattern in healthy intestine or in intestinal stem cells, which are the cells of origin of the tumour. Since the mice and hence the tumours were less than three months old, the changes must have already spread shortly after the first genetic mutation in the APC gene within the tumour cells. According to the scientists, the first mutation already leads to pathological activation of numerous enzymes controlling the epigenetic mechanisms.

Remarkably, the molecular biologists discovered large parts of the tumour-specific epigenetic pattern not only in the mouse, but also in human colon cancer tissue. "These initial epigenetic changes could therefore serve as markers and significantly simplify the early diagnosis of colon tumours in the future", hopes Markus Morkel. Patients would merely have to provide a blood sample for the diagnosis and could forego an enteroscopic procedure.


'/>"/>

Contact: Markus Morkel
markus.morkel@charite.de
49-304-505-36107
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. New Stool Test Might Aid in Early Detection of Colon Cancer
2. Experimental Chemo Combo for Colon Cancer Disappoints
3. Targeted therapeutics for colon cancer to be presented at AACR meeting
4. Obese White Women Shying Away From Colon Cancer Screening
5. Diagnostic yield of colonoscopy for melena after nondiagnostic upper endoscopy is lower than previously reported
6. Presence of fetal cells in women lowers risk of breast cancer but raises risk of colon cancer
7. Physical activity linked to reduced mortality in breast and colon cancer patients
8. Exercise May Boost Survival in Breast, Colon Cancer Patients
9. Common Blood Pressure Drugs May Not Cut Colon Cancer Risk
10. Researchers Test Laxative-Free Colon Scan
11. Blacks, Hispanics Have Higher Colon Polyp Risk Than Previously Thought
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Colon cancer exhibits a corresponding epigenetic pattern in mice and humans
(Date:3/29/2017)... ... 29, 2017 , ... Dr. Angela Cotey, a noted general dentist in Mt. ... patients, with or without a referral. Dr. Cotey knows that interceptive orthodontics ... experience. When patients receive early treatment, they may achieve straight teeth with less treatment ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... ... 2017 , ... An inventor from Raynham, Mass., knows the ... conjunction with my braces always rubbed against the inside of my cheeks, causing ... problem." The O.B.S. was the result of his brainstorming. , This patent-pending invention ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... , ... March 29, 2017 ... ... and South Hills of Pittsburgh now have easier access to the robotic-assisted ... by Allegheny Health Network (AHN). Orthopaedic surgeons at Forbes Hospital and Jefferson ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... ... March 28, 2017 , ... A recent Bellwether Education ... quality, the field must first improve teacher preparation program design. It then asserts ... and that decades of input- and outcome-based research has failed to improve teacher ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... ... March 28, 2017 , ... Resoundant, ... be invited to the Siemens Healthineers annual customer education symposium, a world-class learning ... take place from March 27 - 31, 2017 at the Atlanta Marriott Marquis ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:3/28/2017)... , March 28, 2017 The ... (dupilumab) injection to treat adults with moderate-to-severe eczema ... eczema is not controlled adequately by topical therapies, ... advisable. Dupixent can be used with or without ... demonstrates our commitment to approving new and innovative ...
(Date:3/28/2017)...  "US Cancer Generics Market Outlook 2022" report ... trend analysis related to the emergence and integration ... in US. The report analyzes various clinical and ... generics drugs in recent years. The introduction of ... dollars for various stake holders involved US cancer ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... , Va. and PHOENIX , March 28, ... Avella Specialty Pharmacy released a new white ... allergies and the use of latex in healthcare. Specifically, there ... in healthcare. In fact, the FDA has urged manufacturers to ... latex" claim from labels, because of the challenge to ensure ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: