Navigation Links
Coke addicts prefer money in hand to snowy future
Date:8/11/2011

When a research team asked cocaine addicts to choose, hypothetically, between money now or cocaine of greater value later, "preference was almost exclusively for the money now," said Warren K., Bickel, professor in the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, director of the Advanced Recovery Research Center, and professor of psychology in the College of Science at Virginia Tech. This result is significantly different from previous studies where a subject chooses between some money now or more money later.

Hollywood portrays cocaine addicts as people who will do anything to get their drug and cocaine as the most strongly valued commodity in an addict's life. But research led by Bickel suggests a revision of that view-- cocaine is strongly valued only when it is immediately available. "When it is available later, it is not worth very much," he said.

The finding is good news for developing drug treatment programs based on incentives for delaying drug use, he said.

Research has demonstrated that addicts whether, smokers, drinkers, gamblers, or overeaters do tend to prefer the near-term reward. Such findings have provided insights into understanding addiction and the challenges for treatments that promise long-range benefits.

But most of the past research has been done with a single commodity such as money. "In real life, important choices for those with addiction depend on making decisions across commodities, such as cigarettes now or money later," said Bickel. His research team examined how the type of commodity and timing of a reward impacted decision making by cocaine addicts. They asked addicts to decide between cocaine now vs. more cocaine later; money now vs. more money later; cocaine now vs. money later; and money now vs. cocaine later.

Participants were 47 cocaine addicts, by criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, who were seeking treatment. They averaged in their early 40s, with 12 years of education, and a median income of $7,000. Each was asked to estimate the number of grams of cocaine worth $1,000 and the experiments were based on that value. The initial amount offered for the immediate choice has half of the full value; the delayed amount was always the full value. If the choice was money now versus cocaine later, the immediate reward was $500 and the future reward was $1,000 worth of cocaine.

When the participant chose one of the options, the immediate value was adjusted in the next trial up or down by half. If the participant chose the immediate reward, its value dropped by half for the next question. If he chose the future reward, its value increased by 50 percent, but delivery was further in the future. Participants made a choice between immediate and delayed rewards for each of seven delay periods one day, one week, one month, six months, one year, five years, and 25 years.

Findings for money now versus money later and cocaine now versus cocaine later replicated previous studies with single commodities. The mixed commodity conditions are novel to this study. In the money now-cocaine later choices, "participants soon became indifferent to future cocaine amounts, preferring immediate money even when the value of the future cocaine was significantly greater. That is, cocaine is discounted more steeply than money," said Bickel.

However, when the immediate reward was the drug and the future reward was money, the decline was less steep. "It took longer for the future money to lose favor compared to a lesser value of cocaine," said Bickel. Discounting rates for cocaine now versus money later were not much different than the single commodity results.

Reflecting on the implications for drug treatment programs, Bickel pointed out, "We showed that a delayed drug is discounted more than when the drug is immediately available, no matter what the other option is. In other words, drug users are less likely to use drugs when the choice to use is presented only as a future outcome rather than an immediately available one. For treatment programs for which abstinence is reinforced immediately and drug consumption is available only after a delay, the incentive to abstain may outweigh future drug consumption."


'/>"/>

Contact: Susan Trulove
strulove@vt.edu
540-231-5646
Virginia Tech
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Academy's Community Initiative Offers Qualifying Former Addicts Free Vocational Training
2. Interview: Heroin Addicts in Afghanistan: An Inside Look
3. Ignoring stress leads recovering addicts to more cravings
4. Chemical system in brain behaves differently in cocaine addicts, UT Southwestern scientists find
5. Drug addicts get hooked via prescriptions, keep using to feel like a better person, research shows
6. Helping Fellow Addicts Can Help Maintain Sobriety
7. 6 out of 10 male drug-addicts abuse their partners, a study says
8. Top Raleigh Dentist Robert Williamson Designated A Preferred Invisalign Provider
9. Advans Survey Reveals that 75 Percent of Executives Prefer Domestic Outsourcing vs. Offshore
10. Inverness Medical Innovations Declares Dividend on its Series B Convertible Perpetual Preferred Stock
11. ReGear Life Sciences Named Preferred Partner to Genesis Rehab Services
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Many families have long-term insurance that ... insurance companies have a waiver for care if the client has a cognitive impairment ... family pays for care, is often waived, so the benefits from their insurance start ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Global Healthcare Management’s 4th Annual Kids Fun Run brought out ... free event, sponsored by Global Healthcare Management’s CEO, Jon Letko, is aimed at getting ... children of all ages; it is a non-competitive, non-timed event, which is all about ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... , ... October 13, 2017 , ... ... and Agile Software Development, has been awarded a contract by the Center for ... Agreement (BPA) aims to accelerate the enterprise use of Agile methodologies in a ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... First Healthcare ... program management, will showcase a range of technology and learning solutions at the ... Convention and Expo to be held October 14–18, 2017 at the Mandalay Bay ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... 2017 , ... The company has developed a suite of ... authorities worldwide. From Children’s to Adults 50+, every formula has been developed by ... , These products are also: Gluten Free, Non-GMO, Vegan, Soy Free, Non-Dairy*, Preservative ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/2/2017)... Oct. 2, 2017 The Rebound mobile app is ... to reverse the tide of prescription drug addiction. The app ... medicine intake and stepping down their dosage in a safe, ... in December 2017; the first 100,000 people to sign up ... http://www.rebound-solution.com/ ...
(Date:9/27/2017)... 27, 2017  Commended for their devotion to personalized service, ... as number one in the South Florida Business Journal,s 50 ... 5000 yearly list, the national specialty pharmacy has found its ... will soon be honored by SFBJ as the 2017 ... Set to receive his award in October, Bardisa said ...
(Date:9/25/2017)... PROVIDENCE, R.I. , Sept. 25, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... immunogenicity assessment, vaccine design, and immune-engineering today announced ... focused on the development of personalized therapeutic cancer ... and has provided exclusive access to enabling technologies ... MSc Eng., MBA will lead EpiVax Oncology as ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: