Navigation Links
Cocaine Use Among U.S. Workers Declines Sharply in 2008, According to Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index(TM)

Methamphetamine Use Drops While Amphetamine Use Continues to Rise

Random Drug Testing Programs May Deter Use, Data Show

MADISON, N.J., May 6 /PRNewswire/ -- Cocaine use among U.S. employees and job applicants in the general U.S. workforce declined sharply in 2008, according to the annual Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index(TM) (DTI), based on 5.7 million urine drug tests performed last year by Quest Diagnostics (NYSE: DGX), the nation's leading provider of drug testing services. In addition, methamphetamine use in the general workforce declined year over year, yet positive urine tests for amphetamine showed an uptick in worker use of this stimulant drug.

To view a multimedia version of this news release with all charts and maps, click here (

"We now know that the implementation of workplace drug testing programs has significantly reduced drug abuse in worker populations subject to drug testing," according to Robert Willette, Ph.D., President of Duo Research and former Chief of the Research Technology Branch of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. "This impact is evidenced in a variety of surveys and other data sources, one of the most valuable being the Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index. While many substances are showing declines in use, a significant trend upward that will be important to watch is the rise in amphetamine positives. This coincides with survey and emergency room data, and could be tied to the significant increase in drugs prescribed for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Similar trends are seen with the increased use and abuse of pain medications."

Employers that implement drug testing programs do so for a variety of reasons, most often to protect the health and well-being of employees and avert business risk associated with drug-induced judgments. The 2008 DTI summarizes 7.3 million urine drug test results of the U.S. workforce, including both the general U.S. workforce and federally mandated safety-sensitive workforce, which includes pilots, bus drivers, and nuclear power plant operators. The DTI looks at 'recent use,' as measured by laboratory analysis of a urine sample, which detects drug use within the prior one to three days.

Sustained drop in overall drug use

Overall recent drug use in the combined U.S. workforce has sustained a 19-year decline since Quest Diagnostics first published the Drug Testing Index in 1989, summarizing data from 1988, when 13.6 percent of workers tested positive for drug use. In 2008, 3.6 percent of the combined U.S. workforce tested positive in a urine drug test compared to 3.8 percent in 2007. Experts credit effective drug testing programs with positively influencing worker behavior and, in recent years, have cited law enforcement's impact on the decreased availability and increasing costs of illicit substances as a factor in recent drug use declines.

Cocaine and methamphetamine use decline sharply; amphetamine use increases

Positivity rates of recent use of cocaine in the general U.S. workforce dropped 29 percent (0.58 percent of all urine drug tests in 2007 to 0.41 percent in 2008) continuing a steep decline. In 2006, 0.72 percent of urine tests showed recent use of cocaine. While methamphetamine positivity in the general U.S. workforce also dropped 21 percent (0.14 percent in 2007 to 0.11 percent in 2008), the positivity rate for amphetamine increased more than 12 percent, from 0.40 percent to 0.45 percent.

Cocaine, methamphetamine and amphetamine are each a type of stimulant, typically used to increase alertness and relieve fatigue. Stimulants are also used for euphoric effects or may be used to counteract the "down" feeling of tranquilizers or alcohol. Possible side effects of stimulants include increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils and decreased appetite. High doses may cause irregular heartbeat, loss of coordination or collapse. Indications of possible misuse may include excessive activity, talkativeness, irritability or nervousness.

Random drug testing programs appear to deter use

Random drug testing programs appear to deter drug use, DTI data show. In the federally mandated safety-sensitive workforce, where employees expect random drug testing, the drug positivity rate is far lower than the rate of positivity among job applicants in that same workforce. However, in the general workforce, where employees are far less likely to expect random drug testing, the drug use positivity rate is dramatically higher than that of job applicants.

"At first, it may not be surprising that in the safety-sensitive workforce random drug test positivity is nearly 18 percent lower than pre-employment positivity," according to Barry Sample, Ph.D., Director of Science and Technology for Quest Diagnostics' Employer Solutions Division. "Pre-employment drug testing is an important frontline filter to help ensure a drug-free workforce. However, we see a more complex story when these rates are compared to the general workforce, where employees are far less likely to expect random drug testing. Here, the random urine test positivity rate is 47 percent higher than the pre-employment urine test positivity rate."

Random urine test positivity among safety-sensitive workers was 1.4 percent, according to the 2008 DTI, nearly 18 percent lower than the pre-employment positivity rate of 1.7 percent. Those employed in the safety-sensitive workforce understand that they can be subject to a random drug test at any time. In the general workforce, where random urine testing is not typically required of employees nor expected, the random urine test positivity rate was 47 percent higher than that workforce's pre-employment positivity rate. The general U.S. workforce pre-employment urine testing positivity rate reached 3.6 percent, while the general U.S. workforce random urine testing positivity rate reached 5.3 percent.

For the full 2008 Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index, visit the Quest Diagnostics web site at

About the Drug Testing Index(TM) (DTI)

The Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index is published as a public service for government, media and industry and has been considered a benchmark for national trends since its inception in 1988. It examines positivity rates--the proportion of positive results for each drug to all such drug tests performed--among three major testing populations: federally mandated, safety-sensitive workers; the general workforce; and the combined U.S. workforce. Federally mandated, safety sensitive workers include pilots, bus and truck drivers, and workers in nuclear power plants, for whom routine drug testing is mandated by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

About Quest Diagnostics

Quest Diagnostics is the world's leading provider of diagnostic testing, information and services that patients and doctors need to make better healthcare decisions. The company offers the broadest access to diagnostic testing services through its network of laboratories and patient service centers, and provides interpretive consultation through its extensive medical and scientific staff. Quest Diagnostics is a pioneer in developing innovative new diagnostic tests and advanced healthcare information technology solutions that help improve patient care. Additional company information is available at:

Overall Positivity Rates By Drug Category - Urine Drug Tests

(For Combined U.S. Workforce, as a percentage of all such tests)

                       2004      2005      2006      2007      2008
    Overall             4.5%      4.1%      3.8%      3.8%      3.6%

Percent Testing Positive for Cocaine - Urine Drug Tests

(For General U.S. Workforce, as a percentage of all such tests)

                       2004      2005      2006      2007      2008
    Positivity Rates
     for Cocaine       0.72%     0.70%     0.72%     0.58%     0.41%
    % Difference
     Cocaine            N/A      -3.2%     2.9%     -19.4%    -29.3%

Percent Testing Positive for Methamphetamine and Amphetamine - Urine Drug Tests

(For General U.S. Workforce, as a percentage of all such tests)

                       2004      2005      2006      2007      2008
    Positivity for
     Amphetamine       0.45%     0.44%     0.38%     0.40%     0.45%
    Positivity for
     Methamphetamine   0.33%     0.28%     0.18%     0.14%     0.11%

                       2004      2005      2006      2007      2008
    % Difference
     Amphetamine        N/A      -2.2%    -13.6%      5.3%     12.5%
    % Difference
      Methamphetamine   N/A     -15.2%    -35.7%    -22.2%    -21.4%

Positivity Rates By Testing Reason - Urine Drug Tests

(For Federally Mandated, Safety-Sensitive Workforce)

    Testing Reason     2004      2005      2006      2007      2008
    Pre-Employment      2.7%      2.6%      2.3%      2.0%      1.7%
    Random              1.8%      1.8%      1.5%      1.5%      1.4%

Positivity Rates By Testing Reason - Urine Drug Tests

(For General U.S. Workforce)

    Testing Reason     2004      2005      2006      2007      2008
    Pre-Employment      4.1%      3.9%      3.9%      3.9%      3.6%
    Random              7.1%      6.6%      5.5%      5.7%      5.3%

The Drug Testing Index(C) 2009 Quest Diagnostics Incorporated. All rights reserved.

SOURCE Quest Diagnostics Incorporated
Copyright©2009 PR Newswire.
All rights reserved

Related medicine news :

1. UCI researchers find new way to fight cocaine addiction
2. Gene Variant Tied to Cocaine-Induced Paranoia
3. Catalyst to Focus Resources on its Lead Indication for CPP-109; Cocaine Addiction
4. Honey Bees on Cocaine Dance When Food Is Found
5. Drug-related preference in cocaine addiction extends to images
6. College freshmen: pain killers and stimulants less risky than cocaine; more risky than marijuana
7. Cocaine addiction linked to voluntary drug use and cellular memory, UCSF study shows
8. Research reveals molecular fingerprint of cocaine addiction
9. Rat study suggests why teens get hooked on cocaine more easily than adults
10. Gene Therapy in Rats Reduces Cocaine Use
11. Gene therapy reduces cocaine use in rats
Post Your Comments:
(Date:10/9/2015)... ... ... For many, October is a month whose focus has long been on ... cure. At Beverly Hills Physicians in Southern California, it is also a time to ... Beverly Hills Physicians is encouraging patients and non-patients alike to donate their new and ...
(Date:10/9/2015)... Nashville, TN (PRWEB) , ... October 09, 2015 ... ... one of three best audiologists in The Tennessean's eighth annual Toast of Music ... play. , Local Nashville residents nominated and cast votes for their favorite ...
(Date:10/9/2015)... ... October 09, 2015 , ... The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America ... Control and Prevention (CDC) to improve the knowledge and skills of underserved adults with ... a project by the CDC and allows AAFA to continue vital efforts to educate ...
(Date:10/9/2015)... Australia (PRWEB) , ... October 09, 2015 , ... ... in an upcoming episode of Innovations with Ed Begley Jr., airing 1st QT ... segment, Innovations will educate audiences on MMJ Phytotech Limited (MMJ) – a global ...
(Date:10/9/2015)... Maryland (PRWEB) , ... October 09, 2015 , ... ... and assisted living placement counseling, recently opened its newest office in Maryland – ... senior care industry with a background as a project management technology consultant to ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
... ... identification methods produce inaccurate results; relationship models are more effective than bibliometric lists in ... ... generally-held notion that scientists who are “productive” in terms of publishing are well connected ...
... , CHICAGO , Jan. 28 Code ... Express, Inc., a portfolio investment of CHS Private Equity V ... New York -based private equity firm.   , Suture Express ... medical and surgical products.  Suture Express offers over 1,600 acute ...
... known that smokers damage their health by directly inhaling ... access journal Environmental Health has shown that ... smoke, contrary to the prevailing assumption that such risks ... actually smoking. Maria Teresa Piccardo worked with a ...
... ... ... -- Celebrity doctors attract high-value patients, get book deals, CNN expert spots, lucrative speaking engagements, ... and branding experts report high-visibility doctors are as adept at publicity and personal branding as ...
... Jan. 28 Grubb & Ellis Healthcare REIT II, ... to acquire Highlands Ranch Medical Pavilion, an approximately 37,000-square-foot, multi-tenant ... Highlands Ranch .  The acquisition is subject to customary ... in the agreement.   , Located at 8671 S. Quebec ...
... YORK , Jan. 28 Care Investment Trust Inc. ... estate investment and finance company formed to invest in healthcare-related real ... Liquidation (the "Plan"), previously approved by the Company,s Board of Directors ... at a special meeting called for that purpose.  Approval of the ...
Cached Medicine News:
(Date:10/8/2015)... , Oct. 8, 2015  "They really did ... of her Kaiser Permanente care team, after a routine ... treatment plan for cancer. The 79-year-old Kaiser Permanente Senior ... , went in for what she thought was tendinitis ... physician and care team, however, she was diagnosed with ...
(Date:10/8/2015)...  Trovagene, Inc., (NASDAQ:   TROV) a developer ... of results from a field experience analysis featuring ... (PCM) platform to accurately identify mutational status, ... appropriate therapy for patients. Mark Erlander , ... the results today in an oral presentation titled ...
(Date:10/8/2015)... York , October 8, 2015 ... Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 - 2022 ... valued at USD 2.63 billion in 2013 and is anticipated ... 2022 to reach USD 4.00 billion in 2022. --> ... Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 - ...
Breaking Medicine Technology:
... Calif., May 17, 2012   Accuray Incorporated (Nasdaq: ... announced today the appointment of Richard Pettingill, LFACHE as ... May 11, 2012.   Richard Pettingill,s career ... leadership positions in a variety of prominent organizations. Most ...
... 2012 Simbionix USA Corporation, the ... education products, is proud to announce the release ... GI Mentor™ Express simulator and the ...      (Logo: ...
Cached Medicine Technology:
... latest addition to our suite ... is the personal-sized GeneAmp PCR ... for both basic PCR and ... the culmination of several years ...
... 96 well thermocycler with ... Peltier technology for fastest available ... to 4C/sec with High Pressure ... PCR plates. Includes motorized ...
... highest precision, more user-friendliness and absolute reliability ... the definition of the Mastercycler ep system. ... research has been developing dynamically. The same ... Systems. To keep pace with these ...
... The Techne TC412 is a high performance, ... price. Features & Benefits include: Flexible ... intuituve programming, 8 peltiers, PC networking. Includes ... Up to 32 Techne cyclers can be connected ...
Medicine Products: