Navigation Links
Case Western Reserve researchers create short-term memories in-vitro

Ben W. Strowbridge, PhD, Professor of Neurosciences and Physiology/Biophysics, and Robert A. Hyde, a fourth year MD/PhD student in the neurosciences graduate program at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, have discovered how to store diverse forms of artificial short-term memories in isolated brain tissue.

"This is the first time anyone has found a way to store information over seconds about both temporal sequences and stimulus patterns directly in brain tissue," says Dr. Strowbridge. "This paves the way for future research to identify the specific brain circuits that allow us to form short-term memories."

Their study, entitled "Mnemonic Representations of Transient Stimuli and Temporal Sequences in Rodent Hippocampus In Vitro," is slated for publication in the October issue of Nature Neuroscience, and is currently available online.

Memories are often grouped into two categories: declarative memory, the short and long-term storage of facts like names, places and events; and implicit memory, the type of memory used to learn a skill like playing the piano.

In their study, the researchers sought to better understand the mechanisms underlying short-term declarative memories such as remembering a phone number or email address someone has just shared.

Using isolated pieces of rodent brain tissue, the researchers demonstrated that they could form a memory of which one of four input pathways was activated. The neural circuits contained within small isolated sections of the brain region called the hippocampus maintained the memory of stimulated input for more than 10 seconds. The information about which pathway was stimulated was evident by the changes in the ongoing activity of brain cells.

"The type of activity we triggered in isolated brain sections was similar to what other researchers have demonstrated in monkeys taught to perform short-term memory tasks," according to Mr. Hyde. "Both types of memory-related activity changes typically lasted for 5-10 seconds."

The researchers also demonstrated that they could generate memories for specific contexts, such as whether a particular pathway was activated alone or as part of a sequence of stimuli to different inputs. Changes in ongoing activity of hippocampal neurons accurately distinguished between two temporal sequences, akin to humans recognizing the difference between two different song melodies. The artificial memories Dr. Strowbridge's group created in the hippocampus continued to recognize each sequence even when the interval between stimuli was changed.

The new research expands upon a previous study, also published in Nature Neuroscience in 2010, in which Dr. Strowbridge's group found that isolated pieces of the hippocampus could store which one of two inputs was stimulated. That study also found that a relatively rare type of brain cell, originally described in the 1800's by the famous Spanish anatomist Santiago Ramn y Cajal, but ignored in modern times, played a critical role in the memory effect.

By demonstrating that the same neural circuits also can store information about context, the new study will likely increase the focus on these potential "memory cells" in the hippocampus, called semilunar granule cells, says Dr. Strowbridge.

Understanding normal memory function also lays the groundwork for understanding how neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, affect memory and for developing new, more effective treatments for memory impairments associated with aging.

Contact: Jessica Studeny
Case Western Reserve University

Related medicine news :

1. ESC analysis reveals arrhythmia treatment gaps between Eastern and Western Europe
2. Midlife fitness staves off chronic disease at end of life, UT Southwestern researchers report
3. UT Southwestern named the official health care team of the Dallas Stars
4. Northwestern researchers investigate treatment for tumor cells in spinal fluid
5. UT Southwestern investigators awarded $48.2 million in latest round of CPRIT grants
6. UT Southwestern study suggests new treatment target for deadly brain tumors
7. Northwestern Medicine hosts the National Marfan Foundations Annual Conference
8. Northwestern launches comprehensive program for patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease
9. UT Southwestern study shows treating diabetes early, intensively is best strategy
10. UCLA launches first face transplantation program in western US
11. Ovarian Transplants May Preserve Fertility in Young Cancer Survivors
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/27/2015)... ... ... A simply groundbreaking television series, "Voices in America", which is hosted by Hollywood ... issues that are presently affecting Americans. Dedicated to providing the world with a wide ... subjects consumers focus on, one episode at a time. , In the latest ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... ... 27, 2015 , ... The men and women on this ... in the country. They have overseen financial turnarounds, shown commitment to their community ... industry as a whole through their advocacy and professional efforts. , Becker's Hospital ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... ... November 26, 2015 , ... Patients at Serenity Point ... come together on Thanksgiving Day to share the things that they are most ... Serenity Point YouTube channel, patients displayed what they wrote on index cards, describing ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... , ... November 26, 2015 , ... ... workshops to discuss bioavailability and the need to integrate dose form selection in ... collaboration with OBN, the membership organization supporting and bringing together the UK’s emerging ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... , ... November 26, 2015 , ... ... set of retro-fused, self-animating trailer titles with ProTrailer: Vintage. This newly styled ProTrailer ... classically-influenced trailer titles work with any font, giving users limitless opportunities to stylize ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:11/27/2015)... Research and Markets ( ) has announced the ... report to their offering. ... author the present scenario and growth prospects of the ... market size, the report considers revenue generated from the ... copper IUDs. The report forecasts the global intrauterine devices ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... , 26 november 2015 AAIPharma ... de geplande investering aan van ten minste ... laboratoria en het mondiale hoofdkantoor in ... zal resulteren in extra kantoorruimte en extra ... de groeiende behoeften van de farmaceutische en ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... Research and Markets ( ) has announced ... Outlook to 2019 - Rise in Cardiac Disorders and Growing ... to their offering. Boston ... scientific and others. --> The market ... Boston scientific and others. ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: