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CROI -- Day 2: Selected highlights of NIH-supported research
Date:2/28/2011

ndings presented today, the gel was shown to have a strong antiviral effect when used in the rectum. These results, based on rectal tissue biopsies sampled from HIV-negative men and women who used the product daily for one week, provide the first evidence that tenofovir gel could help reduce the risk of HIV infection from anal sex, even though the vaginal gel formulation may not be optimal for rectal use. Analysis of rectal tissue samples showed that a single dose of oral tenofovir provided no protection against HIV.

Craig Hendrix, M.D., of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, described results from a Phase II international clinical trial known as MTN-001. This is the first study to directly compare vaginal tenofovir gel and oral tenofovirtwo promising approaches for preventing HIV in women. The researchers found that daily use of the vaginal gel for 6 weeks led to a more than 100-times higher concentration of active drug in vaginal tissue than did the oral tablet; additionally, a daily dose of the tablet for 6 weeks was associated with a 20-times higher active drug concentration in blood. Overall, most U.S. women in the study favored the tablet over the vaginal gel, while African participants favored the gel and tablet equally.

Race Differences and ART

According to results of a retrospective multi-study analysis presented by Heather Ribaudo, Ph.D., of Harvard University's School of Public Health in Boston, being black was associated with a 40 percent higher risk of failing to control HIV levels with an initial antiretroviral therapy regimen than being white. This finding is based on an examination of data on nearly 2,500 men and women who participated in five clinical trials conducted between 1998 and 2005. This difference could not be explained by any other variable examined, including the treatment regimen or self-reported adherence to it; age or sex; baseline CD4+ T cell level or viral load; disease statu
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Contact: Laura Sivitz Leifman
niaidnews@niaid.nih.gov
301-402-1663
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Source:Eurekalert

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