Navigation Links
Breakthrough in cancer vaccine research
Date:11/4/2010

Researchers at the University of Cambridge hope to revolutionise cancer therapy after discovering one of the reasons why many previous attempts to harness the immune system to treat cancerous tumours have failed.

New research, published today in the journal Science, reveals that a type of stromal cell found in many cancers which expresses fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP), plays a major role in suppressing the immune response in cancerous tumours thereby restricting the use of vaccines and other therapies which rely on the body's immune system to work. They have also found that if they destroy these cells in a tumour immune suppression is relieved, allowing the immune system to control the previously uncontrolled tumour.

Douglas Fearon, Sheila Joan Smith Professor of Immunology of the Department of Medicine at the University of Cambridge, said: "Finding the specific cells within the complex mixture of the cancer stroma that prevents immune killing is an important step. Further studying how these cells exert their effects may contribute to improved immunological therapies by allowing us to remove a barrier that the cancer has constructed."

Vaccines created to prompt the immune system to attack cancerous cells in tumours have shown to activate an immune response in the body but have, inexplicably, almost never affected the growth of tumours. Immunologists who specialise in tumours have suspected that within the tumour microenvironment the activity of immune cells is somehow suppressed, but they have thus far been unable to fully reverse this suppression.

The new research, funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Sheila Joan Smith Professorship endowment, sheds light on why the immune response is suppressed. The Cambridge study found that at least one immune suppressive component is contained within normal tissue cells (called stromal cells) the cancer has coerced to assist its survival. The cell they studied specifically expresses a unique protein often associated with wound healing - fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP). The FAP expressing cells are found in many cancers, including breast and colorectal cancers.

In order to determine if FAP expressing stromal cells contribute to the resistance of a tumour to vaccination, the researchers created a transgenic mouse model which allowed them to destroy cells which expressed FAP. When FAP-expressing cells were destroyed in tumours in mice with established Lewis lung carcinomas (of which only 2% of the tumour cells are FAP-expressing), the cancer began to rapidly 'die'. The Fearon lab now hopes to collaborate with scientists at the CRUK Cambridge Research Institute to evaluate the effects of depleting FAP-expressing cells in a mouse model that more closely resemble human cancer, and to examine FAP-expressing cells of human tumours.

Professor Fearon continued: "These studies are in the mouse, and although there is much overlap between the mouse and human immune systems, we will not know the relevance of these findings in humans until we are able to interrupt the function of the tumour stromal cells expressing FAP in patients with cancer.

"It should be noted, however, that the FAP-expressing stromal cell was actually first found in human cancer by Lloyd Old and his colleagues 20 years ago."


'/>"/>

Contact: Genevieve Maul
Genevieve.maul@admin.cam.ac.uk
44-012-237-65542
University of Cambridge
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Human Dental Technology Leads to Breakthroughs for Pet Dental Health at Sergeants Pet Care Products, Inc.
2. First Breakthrough in Water Heating Technology!
3. New DNA technique leads to a breakthrough in child cancer research
4. Northern Illinois Proton Center on the Verge of Major Medical Breakthrough
5. OvaCue Fertility Monitor Breakthrough Allows Women to See Fertility Color-coded on a Calendar Over Time
6. National Event Addresses Breakthroughs in Crohn's & Colitis Research: National Expert & Researcher Answers Key Questions on Interactive Webcast/Teleconference
7. Breakthroughs in treatment of spine and back conditions
8. buySAFE, Inc. Releases a Breakthrough White Paper that is a Must Read for Every Internet Retailer Interested in Increasing Website Conversion
9. Tampa Bay Vein Treatment and Cosmetic Dermatology Practice Using New Laser Technology Some Say is the Latest Breakthrough
10. Breakthrough for babies born with severe cleft palates after experiments at ISIS
11. Gene-Targeted Cancer Fix Could Be a Breakthrough
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/25/2016)... TX (PRWEB) , ... June 25, 2016 , ... ... the United States, named Dr. Sesan Ogunleye, as the Medical Director of its new ... the facility Medical Director of our new Mesquite location,” said Dr. James M. Muzzarelli, ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... On Friday, June 10, Van Mitchell, ... at Work award to iHire in recognition of their exemplary accomplishments in worksite health ... annual Maryland Workplace Health & Wellness Symposium at the BWI Marriott in Linthicum Heights. ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Those who have experienced ... feelings, many turn to unhealthy avenues, such as drug or alcohol abuse, as a ... has released tools for healthy coping following a traumatic event. , Trauma sufferers tend ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Texas (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... International Conference and Scientific Sessions in Dallas that it will receive two significant ... of the grants came as PHA marked its 25th anniversary by recognizing patients, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... 24, 2016 , ... Comfort Keepers® of San Diego, CA is excited to ... Recovery® program to drive cancer patients to and from their cancer treatments. Comfort ... quality of life and ongoing independence. Getting to and from medical treatments is ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016  MedSource announced today ... its e-clinical software solution of choice.  This latest ... possible value to their clients by offering a ... preferred relationship establishes nowEDC as the EDC platform ... MedSource,s full-service clients.  "nowEDC has long been a ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016 Any dentist who has made an ... current process. Many of them do not even offer this ... and high laboratory costs involved. And those who ARE able ... such a high cost that the majority of today,s patients ... Parsa Zadeh , founder of Dental Evolutions Inc. and ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Ill. , June 23, 2016  In a startling report ... are failing their residents by lacking a comprehensive, proven plan to ... a definitive ranking of how states are tackling the worst ... to only four states – Kentucky , ... Vermont . Of the 28 failing states, three ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: