Diabetic neuropathy is a disorder of the nerves caused by high levels of sugars in the body in which people with diabetes can, over a length of time, develop nerve and tissue damage in various parts of the body, including the peripheral nerves, heart, digestive system, kidneys and reproductive system. Different types of diabetic neuropathies exist, including peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, proximal neuropathy and focal neuropathy.
Diabetic neuropathy can result from multiple factors, including high blood sugar levels, autoimmune deficiency, neurovascular factors (ischemia) or decreased blood supply to the nerves. Complimentary factors like smoking, alcohol intake and use of various medications such as cancer treatment drugs can contribute to or precipitate the condition.
Pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy include micro vascular changes like vasoconstriction which can lead to capillary basement membrane and endothelial hyperplasia and eventually to low oxygen tension and hypoxia, micro vascular dysfunction and ischemia. Neuronal dysfunction can develop simultaneously that is neuronal ischemia and ultimate manifestation of neurological as well as other symptoms and signs like pain, numbness, burning and tingling.
Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy vary from numbness or tingling to a burning type of pain in the toes, feet, legs, arms, hands and fingertips.
In addition, diarrhea, constipation, indigestion, weakness, dizziness, problems with urination (urinary incontinence or loss of bladder control), erectile dysfunction, impotence, vision change, fasciculation, muscle weakness, and difficulty standing, walking or weight bearing are common. Other symptoms include de
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