Navigation Links
Brain scan study shows cocaine abusers can control cravings
Date:11/30/2009

UPTON, NY When asked to inhibit their response to a "cocaine-cues" video, active cocaine abusers were, on average, able to suppress activity in brain regions linked to drug craving, according to a new study at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results, to be published in an upcoming issue of NeuroImage, suggest that clinical interventions designed to strengthen these inhibitory responses could help cocaine abusers stop using drugs and avoid relapse.

"Exposure to drugs or stimuli associated with using drugs is one of the most common factors leading to relapse in drug-addicted individuals," said Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and lead author on the paper.

"We know from previous studies that drug cues can trigger dramatic changes in the brain that are linked to a strong craving response," added co-author Gene-Jack Wang, Chair of Brookhaven's medical department. "This study provides the first evidence that cocaine abusers retain some ability to cognitively inhibit their craving responses to drug-related cues."

Added Volkow, "Our findings provide enormous hope because they imply that cognitive interventions might be developed to maximize cocaine abusers' success in blocking the drug-craving response to help them avoid relapse."

The scientists used a brain-scanning technique called positron emission tomography (PET) and a radioactively "tagged" form of glucose the brain's main fuel to measure brain activity in 24 active cocaine abusers during three different conditions: 1) while subjects simply lay in the scanner with eyes open; 2) while subjects watched a "cocaine-cues" video with scenes simulating the purchase, preparation, and smoking of crack cocaine; and 3) while subjects watched the video but were told to try to inhibit their craving response. Scans were performed in random order and on separate days.

In each scan, the PET camera tracked the radioactive signal from the tagged glucose as it was taken up by various regions of the brain. A stronger signal indicates higher metabolic activity in a particular brain region where more glucose is being used. This technique allows scientists to accurately monitor which brain regions are most active and how that activity changes with time or in response to different situations.

The scientists also monitored the research subjects' heart rate and blood pressure and asked them to describe their level of craving during the scans. Compared with the baseline condition, the cocaine-cues video triggered increases in brain activity in several brain regions associated with drug craving, as well as increases in research subjects' self-reports of craving.

When the research subjects were asked to inhibit their response to the video, and those scans were compared with the no-inhibition condition, metabolic activity decreased dramatically in brain regions involved in experiencing and anticipating rewards, and in a part of the brain that plays a role in assigning value, or salience, to different stimuli. During inhibition, research subjects also reported lower levels of craving compared with the no-inhibition video condition.

The researchers say the findings have significant clinical implications:

"Many current drug treatment programs help addicted individuals predict when and where they might be exposed to drug cues so that they can avoid such situations," Volkow said. "While this is a very useful strategy, in real-word situations, cues may come up in unexpected ways. Our findings suggest that a clinical strategy that trains cocaine abusers to exert greater cognitive control could help them selectively inhibit the craving response whenever and wherever drug cues are encountered whether expectedly or unexpectedly."

Because inhibitory control is crucial for regulating emotions and desires, the findings from this study could have implications for other disorders involving loss of behavioral control, such as gambling and obesity.


'/>"/>

Contact: Karen McNulty Walsh
kmcnulty@bnl.gov
631-344-8350
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Draining away brains toxic protein to stop Alzheimers
2. Vision restoration therapy shown to improve brain activity in brain injured patients
3. Clinical depression linked to abnormal emotional brain circuits
4. Brain imaging reveals breakdown of normal emotional processing
5. Brain cells work differently than previously thought
6. Vaccine Stops Alzheimers Brain Tangles
7. Research may unlock mystery of autisms origin in the brain
8. Scientists Spot Brains Free Will Center
9. Free will takes flight: how our brains respond to an approaching menace
10. Alcoholics With Cirrhosis Have More Brain Damage
11. Brain Lesions Predict MS Progression
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... 2016 , ... PawPaws brand pet supplements owned by Whole Health ... the health of felines. The formula is all-natural and is made from Chinese herbs ... Cat Kidney Support Supplement Soft Chews are Astragalus Root Extract and Rehmannia ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... 25, 2016 , ... The temporary closing of Bruton Memorial Library on June 21 due to ... a new, often overlooked aspect of head lice: the parasite’s ability to live away from ... common occurrence, but a necessary one in the event that lice have simply gotten out ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... ... Friday, June 10, Van Mitchell, Secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental ... exemplary accomplishments in worksite health promotion. , The Wellness at Work Awards took place ... BWI Marriott in Linthicum Heights. iHire was one of 42 businesses to receive an ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... crisis. Her son James, eight, was out of control. Prone to extreme mood shifts and ... him, he couldn’t control his emotions,” remembers Marcy. “If there was a knife on ... say he was going to kill them. If we were driving on the freeway, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... BioMedics, Inc, makers of Topricin and MyPainAway Pain Relief Products, join The ‘Business for a ... an hour by 2020 and then adjusting it yearly to increase at the same rate ... assure the wage floor does not erode again, and make future increases more predictable. , ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016  Astellas today announced the establishment of Astellas Farma Colombia (AFC), a new affiliate with operations headquartered ... Latin America . ... ... ... ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016  Guerbet announced today that it has been ... Award . One of 12 suppliers to ... its support of Premier members through exceptional local customer ... commitment to lower costs. ... our outstanding customer service from Premier," says Massimo ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Research and Markets has announced ... Analysis (United States, China, Japan, Brazil, United Kingdom, Germany, ... offering. Surgical Procedure ... planners, provides surgical procedure volume data in a geographic ... in-depth analysis of growth drivers and inhibitors, including world ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: