Navigation Links
Brain region that can be stimulated to reduce the cognitive deficits of sleep deprivation identified
Date:2/1/2008

NEW YORK A Columbia University Medical Center research team has uncovered how stimulation of a particular brain region can help stave off the deficits in working memory, associated with an extended sleep deprivation.

Working memory is a specific form of short-term memory that relates to the ability to store task-specific information for a limited timeframe, e.g., where your car is parked in a huge mall lot or remembering a phone number for few seconds before writing it down. It has long been established that cognitive performance, such as working memory, declines with sleep deprivation.

We are excited about the possibilities of using brain stimulation to improve cognitive function, said Bruce Luber, Ph.D., lead author of the paper and an instructor in clinical psychiatry at Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons and the New York State Psychiatric Institute. We recently published a study in which we were able to improve the working memory performance of young adults for the first time and this new study extends our findings.

In this research, we were able to non-invasively manipulate a brain network identified by imaging to partially remediate the effects of sleep deprivation using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which has already shown promise in treating depression and other disorders," said Sarah H. Lisanby, M.D., senior author of the study and co-principal investigator of the DARPA grant funding this research. Dr. Lisanby is associate professor of clinical psychiatry and chief of the Brain Stimulation and Therapeutic Modulation Division, at the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons and the New York State Psychiatric Institute.

These findings have important implications for better understanding the neural bases of cognitive decline in the elderly. And the rTMS used in this study may potentially be useful in exploring and treating cognitive deficits due to aging and neuropathology in general, said Yaakov Stern, Ph.D., a professor of clinical neuropsychology in neurology and psychiatry at the Taub Institute for the Research on Alzheimers Disease and the Aging Brain and the Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center at Columbia University Medical Center. Dr. Stern was principal investigator of the DARPA grant.

Findings were published online on Jan. 17, 2008 in Cerebral Cortex; the paper will be published in an upcoming print issue of the journal.

Study Designed to Test Sleep Deprivation Network, by Influencing the Expression of Key Brain Areas in the Network

In a previous study , the investigators identified a sleep deprivation network of brain areas that was active during the performance of a working memory task. Expression of this network was reduced following sleep deprivation. They also found a relationship between reduced expression of this network following sleep deprivation and poorer performance on the working memory task.

In the study, 15 young, healthy subjects underwent sleep deprivation for 48 hours. Working memory was tested using a letter recognition test, known as the delayed match to sample (DMS) task, in which subjects have to recall as quickly as possible whether a letter was included in a set of letters they had just seen. Participants performed this task during fMRI sessions both before sleep deprivation and at the conclusion of the sleep deprivation period.

The researchers used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test whether stimulation of three brain regions in the previously identified network following the sleep deprivation period, could improve performance on the working memory task. rTMS administers a rapid sequence of magnetic pulses to a specific brain area.

Results showed that stimulation at a site over left lateral occipital cortex, a prominent part of the brain network identified with fMRI, resulted in a reduction of sleep-induced slower reaction time without a corresponding decrease in accuracy. This improvement in performance was most marked in those individuals who showed the greatest reduction in the expression of the brain network following sleep deprivation.

In addition to expanding our understanding of cognitive decline in the elderly, these findings may also have implications for new ways to treat sleep deprivation, a pervasive problem for soldiers, truck drivers and night-shift workers, which can result in impairment on the job and accidents, said Dr. Stern.

Cognitive Reserve Varies Among Individuals

Elderly persons show a broad range of individual differences in the degree to which they experience cognitive deficits as they age. One hypothesis to explain these differences was first formulated by Dr. Stern in 2002 and has since been adopted by neuroscientists worldwide, and is known as cognitive reserve. The theory of cognitive reserve suggests that some individuals are better able to cope with age-related or other neuropathology because they can call upon more neural resources.

These present findings are consisted with the concept of cognitive reserve because some participants suffered larger deficits in working memory performance due to sleep deprivation, while others were much less affected. These susceptibility differences were related to differential expression of a brain network.

This suggests that the activity of the sleep deprivation network exhibited properties of neural reserve, where a greater capacity or efficiency in the network allowed some individuals to maintain performance in the face of sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results suggest that rTMS was able to somehow enhance the network activity in those who were not able to maintain performance, artificially facilitating neural reserve.


'/>"/>

Contact: Elizabeth Streich
eas2125@columbia.edu
212-305-6535
Columbia University Medical Center
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. MITs McGovern Institute researchers awarded $8.5M to study brain basis of autism and dyslexia
2. Easter Seals Launches Nationwide Program for U.S. Service Members and Veterans Deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan with Traumatic Brain Injury
3. Treatment capitalizes on unique qualities of radioisotope to prolong lives of brain tumor patients
4. Drug-Related Images Trigger Brains Reward Center
5. High-Dose Chemo Helps Beat Rare Brain Cancer
6. Newborn brain cells modulate learning and memory
7. Jefferson neurosurgeons using new liquid treatment for wide-neck brain aneurysm
8. Deep Brain Stimulation May Improve Recall
9. Deep brain stimulation may improve memory
10. CSHL scientists make progress in determining how the brain selectively interprets sound
11. Amalgam Fillings Dont Affect Childrens Brain Development, Says Study in ADA Journal
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... Apple Rehab Shelton ... staged a mock evacuation of the facility as part of a disaster drill on ... Echo Hose EMS and Shelton City Emergency Manager, as well as the Connecticut ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... The Visiting Nurse Association (VNA) ... a collection of specialty vendors and unique items from across the nation, this holiday-themed ... and wellness services offered by the VNA. The boutique will be open Saturday, ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... , ... October 13, 2017 , ... Global Healthcare Management’s ... Alexandria Park in Milford, NJ. This free event, sponsored by Global Healthcare Management’s ... The fun run is geared towards children of all ages; it is a ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... , ... Talented host, actor Rob Lowe, is introducing a ... episode of "Success Files," which is an award-winning educational program broadcasted on PBS ... in-depth with passion and integrity. , Sciatica occurs when the sciatic nerve in ...
(Date:10/13/2017)... ... October 13, 2017 , ... “The Journey: From the Mountains ... possible to save lost souls in the Philippines. “The Journey: From the Mountains to ... dedicated teacher of the Bible. She has taught all ages and currently teaches a ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:10/4/2017)... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), influenza vaccination should take ... communities across Massachusetts , Connecticut , ... through the end of the month. *Some exclusions apply ... ... by the end of October, according to the Centers for Disease Control ...
(Date:10/2/2017)... 2017  AllianceRx Walgreens Prime, the combined central specialty ... pharmacy benefit manager Prime Therapeutics LLC (Prime), today officially ... the unveiling of new signage at its headquarters in ... at a few other company-owned facilities across the country. ... some of whom will begin to see the AllianceRx ...
(Date:9/28/2017)... , Sept. 28, 2017 Cohen Veterans ... advance the use of wearable and home sensors for ... disorders. Early Signal Foundation, a nonprofit organization focused on ... will provide an affordable analytical system to record and ... ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: