Navigation Links
Brain Stem Cells Reverse Myelin Deficiency in Mice
Date:6/5/2008

Researchers hope to apply novel finding to neurological disorders in humans

THURSDAY, June 5 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers report they have used neural stem cells to correct a congenital brain disorder in mice.

Dr. Steven Goldman, of the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, and his colleagues used a type of neural stem cell called "glial progenitor cells" (GPCs), derived from human fetuses, to correct both behavioral and physiological abnormalities in a mouse model of a myelin-deficiency disorder.

The study represents "a very important advance," said Dr. James Goldman, an investigator in the Columbia Neural Stem Cell Program at Columbia University Medical Center, who was not involved in the study.

Though Steven Goldman and others previously had shown that injection of GPCs into mouse brains could lead to remyelination of demyelinated neurons, that observation did not include any change in disease progression.

"The fact that they were able to get at least some of these animals to survive, and show that physiologically and behaviorally they are doing well, is an advance," said James Goldman.

The findings were reported in the June issue of Cell Stem Cell.

Myelin is a structure, comprised of protein and fat, that envelops long neuronal fibers called axons. Axons are the conduits for neural impulses, both conscious and unconscious. Just as electrical cable must be insulated to prevent signal loss over distance, myelin ensures that nerve impulses can traverse long axonal processes in the central nervous system without degrading.

Myelin is formed by neural support cells called oligodendrocytes, which are derived from GPCs. Disorders that arise from the absence or degradation of myelin represent a "substantial proportion of adult neurological diseases," said Steven Goldman. They run the gamut from autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis to congenital conditions like adrenoleukodystrophy, the condition featured in the movie, Lorenzo's Oil.

In this study, Goldman and his team used "shiverer" mice, whose congenital lack of myelin basic protein causes them to shake and seize uncontrollably, giving them their name. They typically die by 5 months of age.

The shiverer mice were crossed with immunodeficient mice, so they would not reject the GPC transplant, and split into three treatment groups; 59 received no treatment, 29 received injections of buffer into five different locations in the brain shortly after birth, and 26 received injections of GPCs.

By about 130 days after birth, all 88 control mice died. But six of 26 transplanted animals survived at least 160 days, and four lived over a year. Behaviorally and physiologically, these survivors appeared largely cured, and post-mortem analysis of these animals' brains and spinal cords demonstrated why.

"The entire central nervous system had remyelinated and looked normal in terms of structural configuration of the myelination, both at the microscopic and submicroscopic level, and at the behavioral level," Goldman said.

In other words, from five separate injection sites, the GPCs migrated throughout the central nervous system, differentiated into oligodendrocytes, and began producing myelin.

The researchers then assessed the physiological effect of that remyelination, by measuring the speed of nerve transmission along remyelinated axons. They observed velocities on par with those of normal mice.

"That is proof in principle that putting glial progenitors in a brain like this will at least partially remyelinate the brain, and do so functionally," said James Goldman.

Though this study involved a congenital pediatric disorder, Steven Goldman said his goal is to apply the technique to adult diseases like multiple sclerosis. For now, his team is working to understand why most transplanted animals still die. He suggested this could stem from the seizures that plague shiverer animals, including transplant recipients that have not yet completed remyelination, and said he is exploring the utility of pairing transplants with anticonvulsant therapy to alleviate this problem.

But James Goldman pointed out that before this transplant procedure can be turned into a clinical therapy, several issues must be addressed, not the least of which is the politically sensitive problem of obtaining and using human fetal tissue as a therapeutic agent.

More information

For more on leukodystrophies, visit the U.S. National Library of Medicine.



SOURCES: Steven Goldman, M.D., Ph.D., Dean Zutes Chair, professor, Neurology and Neurosurgery, chief, Division of Cell and Gene Therapy, and co-director, Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, N.Y.; James E. Goldman, M.D., Ph.D., professor, pathology, and director, Division of Neuropathology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City; June 2008, Cell Stem Cell


'/>"/>
Copyright©2008 ScoutNews,LLC.
All rights reserved  

Related medicine news :

1. Draining away brains toxic protein to stop Alzheimers
2. Vision restoration therapy shown to improve brain activity in brain injured patients
3. Clinical depression linked to abnormal emotional brain circuits
4. Brain imaging reveals breakdown of normal emotional processing
5. Brain cells work differently than previously thought
6. Vaccine Stops Alzheimers Brain Tangles
7. Research may unlock mystery of autisms origin in the brain
8. Scientists Spot Brains Free Will Center
9. Free will takes flight: how our brains respond to an approaching menace
10. Alcoholics With Cirrhosis Have More Brain Damage
11. Brain Lesions Predict MS Progression
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Brain Stem Cells Reverse Myelin Deficiency in Mice 
(Date:6/26/2016)... ... ... PawPaws brand pet supplements owned by Whole Health Supply is ... of felines. The formula is all-natural and is made from Chinese herbs that have ... Kidney Support Supplement Soft Chews are Astragalus Root Extract and Rehmannia Root Extract ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... 2016 , ... The temporary closing of Bruton Memorial Library on June 21 due to a ... new, often overlooked aspect of head lice: the parasite’s ability to live away from a ... occurrence, but a necessary one in the event that lice have simply gotten out of ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... On Friday, June 10, Van ... Wellness at Work award to iHire in recognition of their exemplary accomplishments in worksite ... 7th annual Maryland Workplace Health & Wellness Symposium at the BWI Marriott in Linthicum ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... , ... Marcy was in a crisis. Her son James, eight, was out of control. Prone ... physically. , “When something upset him, he couldn’t control his emotions,” remembers Marcy. “If ... at my other children and say he was going to kill them. If we ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... Topical BioMedics, Inc, makers of Topricin and MyPainAway Pain Relief Products, join The ‘Business for ... $12 an hour by 2020 and then adjusting it yearly to increase at the same ... wage, assure the wage floor does not erode again, and make future increases more predictable. ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... 24, 2016  Collagen Matrix, Inc., ("Collagen Matrix") ... manufacturing of collagen and mineral based medical devices ... Bill Messer has joined the company ... leverage the growing portfolio of oral surgery, neurosurgery, ... Bill joins the Collagen Matrix executive team as ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... 2016 Research and Markets ... Electronics 2015-2025: Applications, Technologies, Forecasts" report to ... In-Mold Electronics, Smart Skin, Structural Health Monitoring, Composite ... Structural electronics involves electronic and/or electrical components and ... dumb structures such as vehicle bodies or conformally ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the ... to their offering. ... World Market for Companion Diagnostics covers the world market for ... report includes the following: , World IVD ... (N. America, EU, ROW), 2015-2020 , World IVD Companion ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: