Navigation Links
Bone marrow-on-a-chip unveiled
Date:5/5/2014

The latest organ-on-a-chip from Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering reproduces the structure, functions and cellular make-up of bone marrow, a complex tissue that until now could only be studied intact in living animals, Institute researchers report in the May 4, 2014, online issue of Nature Methods. The device, dubbed "bone marrow-on-a-chip," gives scientists a much-needed new tool to test the effects of new drugs and toxic agents on whole bone marrow.

Specifically, the device could be used to develop safe and effective strategies to prevent or treat radiation's lethal effects on bone marrow without resorting to animal testing, a challenge being pursued at the Institute with funding from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In an initial test, the engineered bone marrow, like human marrow, withered in response to radiation unless a drug known to prevent radiation poisoning was present.

The bone marrow-on-a-chip could also be used in the future to maintain a cancer patient's own marrow temporarily while he or she underwent marrow-damaging treatments such as radiation therapy or high-dose chemotherapy.

"Bone marrow is an incredibly complex organ that is responsible for producing all of the blood cell types in our body, and our bone marrow chips are able to recapitulate this complexity in its entirety and maintain it in a functional form in vitro," said Don Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., Founding Director of the Wyss Institute, Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and Boston Children's Hospital, Professor of Bioengineering at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and senior author of the paper.

Ingber leads a large effort to develop human organs-on-chips small microfluidic devices that mimic the physiology of living organs. So far Wyss Institute teams have built lung, heart, kidney, and gut chips that reproduce key aspects of organ function, and they have more organs-on-chips in the works. The technology has been recognized internationally for its potential to replace animal testing of new drugs and environmental toxins, and as a new way for scientists to model human disease.

To build organ chips, in the past Wyss teams have combined multiple types of cells from an organ on a plastic microfluidic device, while steadily supplying nutrients, removing waste, and applying mechanical forces the tissues would face in the body. But bone marrow is so complex that they needed a new approach to mimic organ function.

This complexity arises because bone marrow has an integral relationship with bone. Marrow sits inside trabecular bone a solid-looking type of bone with a porous, honeycombed interior. Throughout the honeycomb, conditions vary. Some areas are warmer, some cooler; some are oxygen-rich, others oxygen-starved, and the dozen or so cell types each have their own preferred spots. To add complexity, bone marrow cells communicate with each other by secreting and sensing a variety of biomolecules, which act locally to tell them whether to live, die, specialize or multiply.

Rather than trying to reproduce such a complex structure cell by cell, the researchers enlisted mice to do it.

"We figured, why not allow Mother Nature to help us build what she already knows how to build," said Catherine S. Spina, an M.D.-Ph.D. candidate at Boston University, researcher at the Wyss Institute, and co-lead author of the paper.

Specifically, Wyss Institute Postdoctoral Fellow Yu-suke Torisawa and Spina packed dried bone powder into an open, ring-shaped mold the size of a coin battery, and implanted the mold under the skin on the animal's back.

After eight weeks, they surgically removed the disk-shaped bone that had formed in the mold and examined it with a specialized CAT scanner. The scan showed a honeycomb-like structure that looked identical to natural trabecular bone.

The marrow looked like the real thing as well. When they stained the tissue and examined it under a microscope, the marrow was packed with blood cells, just like marrow from a living mouse. And when the researchers sorted the bone marrow cells by type and tallied their numbers, the mix of different types of blood and immune cells in the engineered bone marrow was identical to that in a mouse thighbone.

To sustain the engineered bone marrow outside of a living animal, the researchers surgically removed the engineered bone from mice, then placed it in a microfluidic device that mimics the circulation the tissue would experience in the body.

Marrow in the device remained healthy for up to one week. This is long enough, typically, to test the toxicity and effectiveness of a new drug.

The device also passed an initial test of its drug-testing capabilities. Like marrow from live mice, this engineered marrow was also susceptible to radiation but an FDA-approved drug that protects irradiated patients also protected the marrow on the chip.

In the future, the researchers could potentially grow human bone marrow in immune-deficient mice. "This could be developed into an easy-to-use screening-based system that's personalized for individual patients," said coauthor James Collins, Ph.D., a Core Faculty member at the Wyss Institute and the William F. Warren Distinguished Professor at Boston University, where he leads the Center of Synthetic Biology.

Bone marrow-on-a-chip could also generate blood cells, which could circulate in an artificial circulatory system to supply a network of other organs-on-chips. The Defense Agency Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding efforts at the Wyss Institute to develop an interconnected network of ten organs-on-chips to study complex human physiology outside the body.


'/>"/>

Contact: Dan Ferber
dan.ferber@wyss.harvard.edu
617-432-1547
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Legal Resource For People Seeking Legal Options Unveiled at LawsuitLegal.com
2. Mystery of zombie worm development unveiled
3. Adventure Game for Tweens to Promote Healthy Eating will be Unveiled at Games For Health Conference
4. Romantic Paintings, Years in the Making, Unveiled for the First Time
5. Best Fat Burners Unveiled in New Video From Fat Loss Expert
6. New technique to assess the cost of major flood damage to be unveiled at international conference
7. Cancer Prevention, Adjunctive Treatment Plan and Support Program Unveiled at Atlanta Center for Holistic and Integrative Medicine
8. Purple Dresses For Women Just Unveiled By ForeverDresses.com
9. Halter Wedding Dresses Unveiled By FannyBrides.com
10. Party Dress For January 2014 Unveiled By Fadhits.com
11. Beautiful Apple iPhone 5 Hard Cases Unveiled By Skmen.com
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Bone marrow-on-a-chip unveiled
(Date:6/23/2017)... ... , ... Goodcents Deli Fresh Subs today announced the opening of a new ... St. Topeka, Kan. 66604 (near 21st and Gage). It is owned and operated by ... locations in the Topeka and Bonner Springs, Kan. area. , “Goodcents has such ...
(Date:6/23/2017)... ... June 23, 2017 , ... Ensuring meat products have reached ... the importance of correctly using a meat thermometer. The videos feature University of ... on consumer food safety habits. Dr. Bruhn explains the variety of meat thermometers ...
(Date:6/23/2017)... , ... June 23, 2017 , ... 21 Middle East ... (EF) has selected 21 leaders from government, business and civil society in 11 countries ... the U.S. this fall, engaging in a transformative exchange of knowledge and ideas with ...
(Date:6/23/2017)... ... June 23, 2017 , ... PureLife Dental is pleased to announce that California ... members. As part of the amalgam separator endorsement, all CDA members may purchase an ... off the retail value. This partnership between PureLife and CDA is especially timely as ...
(Date:6/23/2017)... ... June 23, 2017 , ... American Farmer, will feature ... which is slated to air fourth quarter 2017. American Farmer airs Tuesdays at 8:30aET ... a Danish pharmacist, founded Chr. Hansen in Denmark in 1874 after a groundbreaking discovery ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/9/2017)... AirXpanders, Inc. (ASX: AXP) (AirXpanders or Company), ... sale and distribution of the AeroForm® Tissue Expander System, ... commercial roll-out in the United States ... hundred (100) medical institutions and health systems, located throughout ... alternative for women who choose reconstructive surgery following a ...
(Date:6/8/2017)... June 8, 2017   Responding to Heath Ledger,s ... the death of singer Chris Cornell in May, ... International offers a free online psychiatric drug ... and families about psychotropic drug risks. The ... died from an accidental overdose, has called for tighter rules ...
(Date:6/7/2017)... , June 7, 2017  Novavax, Inc., (Nasdaq: ... two Phase 2 trials of its RSV F protein recombinant ... bearing age have been published in the journal ... been shared in prior scientific conferences). The Company previously announced ... 2014. Novavax is developing the RSV F Vaccine with the ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: