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Bacterial 'syringe' necessary for marine animal development
Date:1/14/2014

study and a postdoctoral scholar in Newman's laboratory, "there was no mechanistic explanation for how bacteria can actually induce that process to happen. We wanted to provide that explanation."

Shikuma began by investigating Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, a bacterial species known to induce metamorphosis in the tubeworm and other marine invertebrates. In earlier work, Michael G. Hadfield of the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, a coauthor of the Science Express paper, had identified a group of P. luteoviolacea genes that were necessary for tubeworm metamorphosis. Near those genes, Shikuma found a set of genes that produced a structure similar to the tail of bacteriophage viruses.

The tails of these phage viruses contain three main components: a projectile tube, a contractile sheath that deploys the tube, and an anchoring baseplate. Together, the phage uses these tail components as a syringe, injecting their genetic material into host bacteria cells, infectingand ultimately killingthem. To determine if the phage tail-like structures in P. luteoviolacea played a role in tubeworm metamorphosis, the researchers systematically deleted the genes encoding each of these three components.

Electron microscope images of the bacteria confirmed that syringe-like structures were present in "normal" P. luteoviolacea cells but were absent in cells in which the genes encoding the three structural components had been deleted; these genes are known as metamorphosis-associated contractile structure (mac) genes. The researchers also discovered that the bacterial cells lacking mac genes were unable to induce metamorphosis in tubeworm larvae. Previously, the syringe-like structures had been found in other species of bacteria, but in these species, the tails were deployed to kill other bacteria or insects. The new study provides the first evidence of such structures benefitting another organism, Shikuma says.'/>"/>

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
mr@caltech.edu
626-395-3227
California Institute of Technology
Source:Eurekalert

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