In the study, 222 children ages 5 to 17, including both typically developing children and high-functioning children with ASD, were tested for how well they could understand speech with increasing levels of background noise. In one test, the researchers played audio recordings of simple words. In a second test, the researchers played a video of the speaker articulating the words, but no audio. A third test presented the children with both the audio and video recordings.
The test mimics the so-called "cocktail party" effect: a noisy environment with many different people talking. In such settings, people naturally rely on both auditory and facial clues to understand what another person is saying. "You get a surprisingly big boost out of lip-reading, compared with hearing alone," said Dr. Foxe. "It's an integrative process."
In the first test (audio alone), the children with ASD performed almost as well as typically developing children across all age groups and all background noise levels. In the second test (video alone), the children with ASD performed significantly worse than the typically developing children across all age groups and all background noise levels. "But the typically developing children didn't perform very well, either," said Dr. Foxe. "Most people are fairly terrible at lip-reading."
In the third test (audio and video), the younger children with ASD, ages 6 to 12, performed much worse than the typically developing children of the same age, particularly at higher levels of background noise. However, among the older children, there was no difference in performance between the typically developing and children with ASD.
"In adolescence, something amazing happens and the kids with ASD begin to perform like the typically developing kids," said Dr. Foxe. "At this point, we can't explain why. It may be a function
|Contact: Kim Newman|
Albert Einstein College of Medicine