Navigation Links
Antibiotics can cause pervasive, persistant changes to microbiota in human gut
Date:11/18/2008

MBL, WOODS HOLE, MAUsing a novel technique developed by Mitchell Sogin of the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) to identify different types of bacteria, scientists have completed the most precise survey to date of how microbial communities in the human gut respond to antibiotic treatment.

Sogin, director of the MBL's Josephine Bay Paul Center, and Susan Huse of the MBL, along with David Relman and Les Dethlefsen of Stanford University, identified pervasive changes in the gut microbial communities of three healthy humans after a five-day course of the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin. Their results are reported in the Nov. 18 issue of PloS Biology.

Using very conservative criteria, the scientists identified at least 3,300 to 5,700 different taxa (genetically distinct types) of bacteria in the human distal gut, and antibiotic treatment influenced the abundance of about a third of those taxa.

"You clearly get shifts in the structure of the microbial community with antibiotic treatment," says Sogin. "Some bacteria that were in low abundance prior to treatment may become more abundant, and bacteria that were dominant may decrease in abundance. When you get these shifts, they may be persistent. Some individuals may recover quickly, and others won't recover for many months."

In all the individuals tested in this study, the bacterial community recovered and closely resembled its pre-treatment state within four weeks after the antibiotic course ended, but several bacterial taxa failed to recover within six months.

This raises questions about the health effects of perturbations to the human-microbial symbiosis in the gut, such as may occur with antibiotic treatment. Because specific microbial populations mediate many chemical transformations in the gutand previous studies have related these processes to cancer and obesity, among other conditionschanges in the composition of the gut microbiota could have important, but as yet undiscovered, health effects.

"When you change the microbial population structure in the gut, you may affect how that population is keeping indigenous pathogens at manageable levels," says Sogin. Bacteria that do not normally cause problems, for example, may begin to grow more rapidly, and cause disease.

The study is part of a large, international effort to fully characterize the microbiota in the human gut, which is the highest-density natural bacterial ecosystem known. Up to 100 trillion microbial cells reside in the gut, and this community plays essential roles in nutrition, development, metabolism, pathogen resistance, and regulation of immune responses.

Until recently, descriptions of human-associated microbiota were constrained by techniques of cultivating (and thus identifying) bacteria. Less than 20-40% of the microbes in the human distal gut, for example, have been cultured in the laboratory. Since the late 1980s, however, cultivation-independent microbial surveys have been developed that identify community members by genetic sequencing. Sogin's technique, for example, which was used in this study, characterizes microbial populations by sequencing short, hypervariable regions of one gene common to all microbes, the 16S rRNA gene. This pyrosequencing technique reveals greater taxonomic richness in microbial samples at a fraction of the cost of traditional sequencing technologies.


'/>"/>

Contact: Diana Kenney
dkenney@mbl.edu
508-289-7139
Marine Biological Laboratory
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Antibiotics Not Always Best Bet for Battling Childhood Ear Infections
2. Ear infection superbug discovered to be resistant to all pediatric antibiotics
3. Antibiotics May Not Help Mens Chronic Pelvic Pain: Harvard Doctors Discuss Alternatives
4. Advanced Life Sciences to Participate in Antibiotics Expert Panel at the 10th Annual BIO CEO & Investor Conference
5. DNA with a twist: New company to search for cancer drugs and antibiotics
6. Antibiotics Do Little for Inner Ear Infections
7. Biannual Antibiotics May Cut Major Cause of Blindness in Africa
8. Synthetic peptoids hold forth promise for new antibiotics
9. Dont Prescribe Antibiotics for Adult Sinus Woes
10. Green Tea Boosts Antibiotics for Superbugs
11. Gator Blood May Be New Source of Antibiotics
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/13/2016)... CA (PRWEB) , ... February 13, 2016 , ... With ... particle overlays to footage all within Final Cut Pro X. Each user can select ... over 3D rotation, angle of view, blur, focus offset, hue, saturation, value, contrast, glow, ...
(Date:2/13/2016)... Salt Lake City, Utah (PRWEB) , ... February 13, 2016 , ... When an ... kids, Host Parents aren’t always sure what they are in for and they are often ... Pairs are more than they were hoping for. This year’s Au Pair of the Year ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... Mystic Buddha Publishing House presents Valentine’s Day tips ... biography of Rama - Dr. Frederick Lenz. , According to Publisher Roger ... Buddhist teacher for teaching and helping others. Valentine’s Day celebrates love in all ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... ... , Back to the Future , Feb. 25, 2016 — 11:00 a.m. – 12:30 p.m. ... learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” , An analysis of CDRH’s enforcement actions ... takes time. , Take a close look at the warning letters the agency sent ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... Coco Libre, the maker of coconut water ... LA GRAMMY’s Style Lounge Event. Coco Libre will offer musicians and celebrities the company’s ... big event. The invitation-only gifting suite, held this year at the W Hollywood Hotel, ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:2/12/2016)... 2016  Sequent Medical, Inc. announced today that it ... the safety and effectiveness of the WEB™ Aneurysm Embolization ... aneurysms.  Prof Laurent Spelle , MD, Head of ... France and Principal Investigator of the CLARYS ... and Germany.  Although patients with ruptured aneurysms ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... 12 2016  OMS Supply, a large provider of ... announced today the recent launching of their new company ... of features that enhance the user experience and enable ... --> --> Despite ... company that started in early 2016, they have already ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... NEW YORK , Feb. 11, 2016 ... - Companion Diagnostics in Personalized Medicine and Cancer ... Markets. - High-Growth Diagnostic Testing Markets. - ... Cancer Testing. - Molecular Diagnostics in Genetic Testing. ... - Molecular Diagnostics Markets. - Over-the-Counter Diagnostic Products ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: